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 The Sąjūdis (Reform Movement), 1988–1990

 

 

Prehistory of the Sąjūdis  

In the second half of the 1980s, the Soviet Union has faced a change of the highest authority within the Communist party, when Mikhail Gorbachev was elected as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) on the 11th of March, 1985. With an inefficiency of the economic system becoming increasingly evident, the Soviet authority was inevitably headed towards implementation of the reform, perestroika (restructuring). Perestroika has definitely encouraged both changes in the political system and transformation of the society. Perestroika has been accompanied by loud slogans, such as glasnost (publicity), and democratization. 

The weakening of the functionality of the Soviet authority was exposed by the first unauthorized rally that took place in Lithuania during the Soviet period, at the monument to A. Mickevičius (Adam Mickiewicz) in Vilnius and was organized by the Lithuanian Liberty League (hereafter – LLL) on the 23rd of August, 1987. Although organizers of the rally have experienced interrogations and persecutions, they have never been arrested, nor subject to criminal proceedings. The rally became a turning-point in the subconscious of the people[1]. 

Despite of political stagnation in Lithuania, Lithuanian scientific and creative intelligentsia has sought to use perestroika in order to solve issues of environmental pollution and devastation of cultural heritage. Informal environmental and architectural conservation movements have been established spontaneously. In 1986 Lithuanian intellectuals have sought to prevent demolition of a house No. 6 in Tilto Street and building of parking area instead of it upon the order of the Soviet authority. Architects, painters, historians, writers, composers have protested against the demolition of the house in a range of different forms: letters, petitions to the Soviet authority, newspaper editions and pickets. This event has been captured in the photograph and negatives of Jonas Česnavičius: the house in question is roofless and with windows missing, protest participants[2], waving Lithuanian tricolour flag and the following writings: “Let’s preserve what’s unique”, “Why do they demolish here?” “Is Tilto Str. No. 6 reflects the future of the Old Town?”[3] This campaign has become the symbol of resistance to the reckless devastation of the Vilnius Old Town and has led to the victory of protestors. In the end of 1987, considering the requirements of society, some streets in the Old Town were renamed according to their old names following the decision of the Vilnius Executive Committee[4]. 

Architectural conservation club “Talka” was established in March of 1987 and has arranged discussion on cultural values, their preservation and organised environment-cleaning campaigns. Vilnius Lower Castle cleaning campaign participants[5] wearing overalls have been captured in the negatives by Algirdas Sabaliauskas as they were cleaning cellars of Vilnius Lower Castle. 

The following environmental protection clubs have been established as a result of the high-level environmental pollution, construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant and scheduled oil-wells in the Curonian Lagoon: Vilnius ecological club “Žemyna” and Kaunas club “Atgaja”. These clubs have arranged public campaigns and discussions. Lithuanian Culture Fund has been established in 1987, on the initiative of geographer and local ethnographer Prof. Česlovas Kudaba, and has contributed to the preservation of St. Nicholas Church, St. Gertrude Church, Bernardine Church and St. George Church, repaired the Gallery of Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, built a monument to the pilots Steponas Darius and Stasys Girėnas, who flew over the Atlantic Ocean, and financed the „Rock March“ through Lithuania[6]. Discussions on ecology, cultural devastation and “blank spots in history” have been held in the “Club of Philosophers” established in 1987. 

With an approach of the 16th of February, 1988 (the 70th anniversary of the Act of Independence), the Soviet authority attempted to deny the meaning of this historical date. In response to the reaction of the Soviet authority, philosopher Arvydas Juozaitis read an announcement “Political Culture and Lithuania” in the Association of Artists on the 20th of April. Therein he emphasized that political culture was impossible without rational self-consciousness, common sense and sovereignty, and also provided historical examples based on the Lithuanian National Revival at the end of the 19th century. 

Popular Front (Rahvarinne) was established in Estonia on the 13th of April, 1988, and has also encouraged Lithuanian society to join the movement. A meeting of the society and the following economists from the Estonian Academy of Sciences was held in May of 1988, in the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences: academician Mikhail Bronstein and senior scientific collaborator Ivar Raig. During the meeting the guests have told about the birth of the Estonian Popular Front and introduced its programme and tasks[7].  

Lithuanian people have also received moral support after Pope John Paul II made a decision on the 28th of May, 1988, to assign Vincentas Sladkevičius, the Chairman of the Lithuanian Bishops’ Conference, as a Cardinal.  

Discussion on the topic "Will we overcome bureaucracy?" was held in the Chamber of Scientists on the eve of the establishment of the Lithuanian Reform Movement, the Sąjūdis. This event was captured in the photographs and negatives by J. Česnavičius and A. Sabaliauskas: gathering of numerous intellectuals[8], young scientists,[9] and speakers: economist Kazimieras Antanavičius, Kazimira Danutė Prunskienė, philosophers: Bronislovas Juozas Kuzmickas, Jokūbas Minkevičius, Romualdas Ozolas, mathematician Saulius Lapienis, physicist Zigmas Vaišvila, journalist Auksė Aukštikalnienė and architect Artūras Skučas[10]. Recording[11] of this discussion contains thoughts of K. Antanavičius on economic sovereignty of the Republic, while A. Aukštikalnienė speaks about withdrawal of bureaucratic privileges; R. Ozolas emphasizes substantial reform and the importance of establishment of the Initiative Group and the Popular Front / Sąjūdis. J. Minkevičius reminds that group will be formed on the 3rd of June in the Academy of Sciences (hereafter – AS). Z. Vaišvila expresses his concern regarding the construction of the third block of the Ignalina nuclear power plant and high environmental pollution. 

 

The Sąjūdis: from the Birth to the Constituent Congress 

Assembly of members of institutes and society was held in the hall of AS on the 3rd of June, 1988. It was attended by 500 people. Official topic of the assembly was titled “Consideration of the Project of Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (LSSR)”. Many participants had been aware of the intention to elect initiative group for a long time before it. The speakers of the assembly of the 3rd of June, 1988, constantly digress from the official topic of the assembly and Chairman E. Vilkas encourages to finish the event. Journalist A. Aukštikalnienė reminds the attendance about victims of the Stalinism and encourages publishing documents of the period of 1940–1941 from the LSSR public security archive [12]. A. Skučas suggests to name the movement as the Reform Movement (“Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis” in Lithuanian) and asks the attendants to specify their contact information. Vytautas Landsbergis emphasizes the representation of the assembly to the society and the will of the attendants to implement the changes. In response to the suggestion of E. Vilkas to finish the assembly, Z. Vaišvila gives his voice for the election of the Initiative Group. Names of the candidates to the Initiative Group are spontaneously selected from the audience; the assembly participants express their approval with applause. The following 35[13] members have been elected to the Sąjūdis Initiative Group: actor Regimantas Adomaitis, writer Vytautas Bubnys, lawyer Juozas Bulavas, economist Antanas Buračas, translator Virgilijus Juozas Čepaitis, journalist Algimantas Čekuolis, singer Vaclovas Daunoras, poet Sigitas Geda, philosopher Bronislovas Genzelis, economist and philosopher Arvydas Juozaitis, composer Julius Juzeliūnas, geographer Česlovas Kudaba, architect Algirdas Kaušpėdas, philosopher Bronislovas Juozas Kuzmickas, musicologist Vytautas Landsbergis, painter Bronius Leonavičius, educologist and literary historian Julija Meilė Lukšienė, poet Alfonsas Maldonis, poet Justinas Marcinkevičius, economist Alvydas Medalinskas, philosopher Jokūbas Minkevičius, architect Algimantas Nasvytis, philosopher Romualdas Ozolas, ecologist Romas Pakalnis, economist Saulius Pečiulis, writer Vytautas Petkevičius, economist Kazimira Danutė Prunskienė, philosopher Vytautas Radžvilas, economist Raimundas Leonas Rajeckas, architect Artūras Antanas Skučas, medic Gintaras Songaila, painter Arvydas Šaltenis, journalist Vitas Tomkus, physicist Zigmas Vaišvila, director Arūnas Vytautas Žebriūnas (audio record from the personal archive of Angonita Rupšytė). Academy of Sciences hall fully packed with the event participants is captured in the photograph of J. Česnavičius.  

Without its own premises, the LPS (Sąjūdis) Initiative Group used to gather in different locations: Filmmakers Union, Association of Writers and Institute of Physics. LPS documents were signed “On behalf of the Initiative Group“. The following Commissions of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group have been formed on the 8th of June, 1988: Ecological (R. Pakalnis, Z. Vaišvila), National (V. J. Čepaitis, A. Žebriūnas), Social (B. Genzelis, R. Ozolas), Economic (A. Buračas, K. D. Prunskienė), Cultural (V. Bubnys, V. Landsbergis) and Legal (J. Bulavas, V. Tomkus). The Initiative Group asked out Stasys Imbrasas, the Head of the Department of Science and Educational Institutions of the Central Committee of the Lithuanian Communist Party (CC of the LPC), who came to the meeting. The Commissions have prepared short programmes of the Sąjūdis in different areas, proposing to withdraw the privileges of the nomenclature employees and „blank spots“ in the cultural heritage, to recognize Lithuanian as the official language, to redeem national history, to take the matter of economic and political autonomy into consideration and to regularly provide information about pollution of water, air and soil[14]. These proposals were introduced to the society on the 13th of June. 

Contemporary authority attempted to control the Sąjūdis and to impose its own supervision on the movement. On the 17th of June, 1988, the CC of the LCP initiated a meeting with the Sąjūdis Initiative Group and proposed Commissions identical to the ones that had already been formed by the Sąjūdis. The Sąjūdis has rejected this proposal. During the meeting with R. Songaila, the First Secretary of the CC of the LCP, on the 23rd of June, members of the Initiative Group demanded to recognize the Sąjūdis and to declare Lithuanian as the official language. Blockage of information and twisted facts referring to the Sąjūdis led to the first independent publication of “Sąjūdžio žinios” (Sąjūdis News) which launched on the 19th of June and contained printed documents the Sąjūdis and their drafts, statements, speeches, letters from people and information about arranged events. A. Skučas acted as an editor of “Sąjūdžio žinios” up until the eighth edition, and was followed by A. Juozaitis who was assigned by the LPS.  

The Initiative Group has arranged an event on the 14th of June, 1988 in the Agriculture Economics Research Institute in commemoration of the deportations in 1941. Leonas Laurinskas (nicknamed “Liūtas” (the Lion)), former partisan and member of the LLL, has been captured in the photograph of J. Česnavičius. L. Laurinskas raised the tricolour flag[15], prohibited by the Soviet Union, during the event arranged by the LLL in the Gediminas Square on the very same evening. Photo also displays speakers and participants. The LLL has also been attended by several members of the Initiative Group. 

Dissemination of the Sąjūdis ideas has taken place during the rallies of the Sąjūdis, various campaigns, which have addressed relevant issues related with ecology, devastation of cultural heritage, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian symbols, restoration of street names, revelation of the “blank spots in history”, etc. Protest campaigns have also been arranged spontaneously at the discretion of publicly active people. One of the first protest campaigns was on the devastation of the Trakai Vytautas Church foundation. Romualdas Lankas, a worker of the Trakai rowing base, was the initiator of this campaign. The protest campaign took place at the Supreme Council (SC) of LSSR. According to the contemporary laws, the campaign was unauthorized, no permission was granted. The majority of the 500 attendants was comprised of workers and students of the institutes located in the Goštautas Street and Vilnius University Faculty of Physics. Information about the campaign has been transmitted via phone. The following members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group have taken part in the campaign: A. Juozaitis, A. Skučas and G. Songaila. Devastation of the Vytautas Church stopped following the protest campaign.

Following the example of the Estonian Popular Front, the Sąjūdis has arranged its first massive rally on the 24th of June, 1988, thus escorting its delegates to the 19th Party Conference of the CPSU. The permission was granted and delegates were invited to the rally. Most of the member of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group thought that the effect of the framed oath in the presence of the nation will be significant and long-term. The attendant crowd included around 20 thousand people[16] holding their self-made posters; the order has been maintained by the so called “Green Armlet” guards wearing green bands with an image of the Pillars of Gediminids[17]. The following goals of the Sąjūdis and requirements for delegates have been introduced during the rally[18]: economic, political and cultural sovereignty of allied republics, establishment of citizenship, declaring Lithuanian as the official language, ensuring guarantees for democratization of a legal party, establishment of national schools and the Constitutional Court. During his speech, V. Landsbergis has drawn a line for collaboration with the LCP, by claiming: “We will consider the assigned delegates as our delegates once they return from Moscow after taking decisions beneficial to the people and Lithuania, while the delegates who will vote for resolutions that are bad (if such are adopted) for the people and Lithuania, shall not be considered as our delegates[19]. The Sąjūdis Initiative Group members have talked about the construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant, solidarity and trust among Lithuanian people. In the end of the rally, A. M. Brazauskas, the secretary of the CC of the LCP, announced about the prepared draft on the declaration of Lithuanian as the official language of the LSSR, termination of financing of the construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant and withdrawal of extraction of oil[20]. The following moments from the rally have been captured in the photographs of J. Česnavičius: a crowd of thousands[21], members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, part of the delegates leaving for the 19th Party Conference of the CPSU, several tricolour flags and posters: “You have been assigned by the CC, but you will be accountable to Lithuania”, „Give the floor to the reform movement Sąjūdis!”, “Free Lithuania in the family of the European Nations” and portraits of M. Gorbachev.  

In response to the blockage of information about the Sąjūdis, members of the Initiative Group arranged an unauthorized picket by the building of the Lithuanian news agency (ELTA) on the 29th of June, 1988. During the picket, a statement of the Sąjūdis has been read to ELTA about the blockage of information on the rallies arranged by the Sąjūdis, publication “Sąjūdžio žinios” has been distributed and message about the meeting of the Sąjūdis on the 9th July has been conveyed. Representatives of ELTA promised to the participants of the picket to publish information in a more objective manner. Picket participants, speakers and the following posters have been captured in the photographs of J. Česnavičius: “Give the floor to the Sąjūdis”; “You need reforms, ELTA!” [22] 

Scenario and organizational matters of the upcoming rally of Sąjūdis have been discussed in the meeting of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group members. The Sąjūdis obtained the authority permit to arrange the rally. The audio recording contains the following speeches of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group: on the speakers of the rally, collecting signatures regarding the acquittal of Arūnas Sakalauskas (who has served in the soviet army), social poll and invitation to organize the rally. Despite of the promises given to the picket participants by the ELTA representatives, the press has further failed to inform the society about the rally to be arranged by the Sąjūdis. People have been invited to the rally by phones, showing poster in the street, sticking the information on the poles and notifying about the event in the publication “Sąjūdžio žinios”.

Around 100.000[23] people from many cities and districts of Lithuania have gathered to the rally of the Sąjūdis in Vingis Park on the 9th of July. The Sąjūdis Initiative Group had decided to legitimize the tricolour flag on this very day[24]. It has been decided to lower a large tricolour flag during the rally under the Vingis Park stage roof, right to the logo “Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis 1988” (Lithuanian Reform Movement 1988). In response to the Sąjūdis requirement due to legitimation of the tricolour flag, the authority decided to legitimize it, which was reported by A. M. Brazauskas during the rally.[25] During the rally the floor has been given to many members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, a guest from Estonia M. Tarmak read a greeting from the Estonian Popular Front to the Sąjūdis in Lithuanian and put an emphasis on the solidarity of Lithuanian and Estonian nations[26]. R. Ozolas has presented the rally participants with the guidelines of the Sąjūdis programme for the first time, V. Landsbergis emphasized the efforts of the nations, residing in Lithuania to live together in peace, S. Geda highlighted the necessity to preserve customs, traditions, cultural heritage, and emphasized the importance for Lithuania to become a sovereign state among other sovereign states[27], while A. Juozaitis encouraged to boycott the newspaper “Tiesa” released by the CC of the LCP, Z. Vaišvila informed about ecological issues, and K. Prunskienė spoke about economic autonomy. A resolution requiring to arrange referendum in the Mountainous Karabagh has been adopted unanimously. Thousands of people had been provided with text of the National Hymn (“Tautiška giesmė”) by V. Kudirka and sang it in the end of the rally. The order has been maintained by the so called “Green Armlet” guards, people donated money to the Sąjūdis. A crowd of thousands and the following posters have been captured in the negatives and positives of Vytautas Daraškevičius, Bronius Kašelionis and A. Sabaliauskas[28]: “No for nationalism! Yes for sovereignty!“, “Sąjūdis – will and hope of the nation”, “Songaila – national disgrace”, “Put aside the privileges of the functionaries”, “For our and your freedom” (both in Lithuanian and Russian)[29], “Halfway true = a form of lie“. The Sąjūdis rallies that had taken place in Vilnius have significantly affected the establishment of the Sąjūdis Initiative and the Sąjūdis support groups both in districts and cities. After the 9th of July, the Sąjūdis initiative groups have started establishing in cities and districts. On the 10th of June, 1988, the Sąjūdis Initiative Group was established in Kaunas, on the 11th of July in Vievis (Trakai Distr.), on the 12th of July in Vilkaviškis and on the 14th of July in Alytus[30]. The Sąjūdis Republican Coordination Centre has been encouraging to register with the established the Sąjūdis support groups starting from July. Activities of the Sąjūdis support groups in Vilnius have been coordinated by the Vilnius Coordination Council established in July[31], and later it has been done by the Vilnius Sąjūdis Council and Asset[32] elected on the 15th of September, 1988. The members of the LPS Initiative group have been invited to the first rallies in different cities and districts. One of the first rallies of the Sąjūdis within the districts took place on the 13th of July in Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė) in the stadium of Jonas Jablonskis secondary school (presently Rygiškiai Jonas Gymnasium), where the Sąjūdis activity programme was presented, votes were given for the restoration of the Marijampolė City name, military service of youth in Lithuania, while authority was challenged with regard to devastation of the cultural heritage[33]. Personal archives of Vitalis Mozūraitis, Romas Rusteika and Paulius Uleckas include photographs and negatives displaying thousands of people with tricolour flags[34], raised Pillars of Gediminids, Coat of Arms of Lithuania (Vytis) and the following posters: “Reform is the awakening of the nation”, “Marijampolė for Kapsukas”[35], “Old names for the streets”[36], “People of Suvalkija, lets swing the bell of Awakening”, “We are for M. Gorbachev!“, signature collection campaign regarding the redemption of the name of Marijampolė[37]. 

In protest against the construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant and environmental pollution, the Sąjūdis arranged unauthorized rally at the SC of LSSR on the 15th of July and organized cyclist march “Lietuva – mano namai” (Lithuania is my home) together with the ecology club “Žemyna” from the 20th of July to the 2nd of August on the route Vilnius–Švenčionys–Ignalina–Sniečkus (presentlyVisaginas)–Utena–Ukmergė–Jonava–Kėdainiai–Dotnuva–Šiauliai–Varniai–Plungė–Kretinga–Palanga–Klaipėda. During the march, signatures have been collected under the letter to the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (hereafter – CM) of the USSR[38] concerning the suspension of the construction of the 3rd block of Ignalina nuclear power plant. 24 rallies have been organized by introducing the objectives of the Sąjūdis and encouraging to establish the support groups. Ecological protest arranged by the Kaunas club “Atgaja” has contributed to the dissemination of the ideas of the Sąjūdis and publishing of the environmental pollution issues. Personal archive of Vidmantas Valiušaitis, an editor of the newspaper “Kauno aidas”, holds a photograph with captured participants of the ecological protest, sailing with kayaks and rafts, poster “Brother Lithuanian, don’t let them poison you!”[39]  

Second tour of the Rock March through Lithuania has disseminated the ideas of the Sąjūdis among the youth: it has taken place during the months of July and August in Biržai, Šiauliai, Mažeikiai, Tauragė, Kėdainiai, Klaipėda, Kaunas and Vilnius. Crowds have been attracted to the concerts of the Rock March by rock bands “Antis”, Šiauliai-based band “Bix”, folklore band “Namo”, Vilnius punk band “Už Tėvynę” with its refrain “Lietuva – tai jėga!” (Lithuania is the power) which has become the main slogan for the whole Rock March[40]. Member of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group A. Juozaitis used to talk with the youth chanting: “Lithuania!” “Latvia!” “Estonia!” The final concert of the Rock March in Kalnai Park on the 7th of August has been captured in the photograph of A. Sabaliauskas: national flags of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia raised above the stage, band “Antis” and its leader A. Kaušpėdas is on the stage[41]. Under the influence of dispersion of the Sąjūdis ideas, initiative groups have been established in Ariogala on the 25th of July, in Šiauliai on the 26th of July, in Panevėžys on 28th of July and in Pasvalys and Varėna in the end of July[42] 

Unlike the Sąjūdis, the LLL has publicly spoken up for the re-establishment of the independence of Lithuania. In commemoration of the Treaty between Lithuania and Soviet Russia in 1920, based on which the Soviet Russia recognized the independence of Lithuania[43], the LLL arranged a commemoration event in the Gediminas Square on the 12th of July, which had not been authorised by the Soviet authority. Militia officers have surrounded the Gediminas Square upon the order of the Soviet authority, but there have been no confrontations present. Recognizing the possibility that Soviet authority could use force against the rally participants, the Sąjūdis adopted a declaration of prohibition of rallies and called them unconstitutional[44]. In the unauthorized rally at the SC of LSSR on the 26th of July, the Sąjūdis protested against the decree limiting the freedom of rallies, assemblies and demonstrations, which was to be adopted by the authority. In response to the position of the Sąjūdis, the CC of the LCP dependent newspaper “Sovetskaja Litva” has published negative reviews about the Sąjūdis 

The positions of the Sąjūdis have been strengthened after the meeting of Alexey Cvetkov, the Deputy Head of the Cultural Department of the CC of the CPSU, and members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group. The tension between the Sąjūdis and contemporary authority has been relieved the visit of Alexander Yakovlev, a member of the CPSU Political Bureau and Secretary of the Ideology of the CC of the CPSU, to Lithuania on the 11-12th of August. During the meeting with the creative intelligentsia and representatives of the Sąjūdis, A. Yakovlev criticized the stoppage of the reform in Lithuania, thus informally supporting the Sąjūdis. After the visit of A. Yakovlev, the authority criticism in respect of the Sąjūdis has also gotten softer: The Sąjūdis was allowed to possess its periodic publication and permanent TV show. A weekly newspaper “Atgimimas” (Awakening), edited by R.Ozolas, was launched on the 16th of September, while on the 18th of September the Sąjūdis Initiative Group has appeared on “TV forumas”, the TV show of the Lithuanian Television, for the very first time. 

Establishment of the Sąjūdis initiative groups has been increasingly accelerating in the districts: in Anykščiai on the 13th of August, in Rokiškis on the 15th of August, in Radviliškis on the 21st of August, in Kelmė and Šilutė on the 25th of August, in Molėtai, Skuodas and Utena on the 29th of August and in Kaišiadorys and Šeduva on the 30th of August[45]. Personal archives of Janina Ražukienė and B. Kašelionis hold positives with captured members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group A. Buračas[46], and S. Geda[47] attending the first Sąjūdis rally in Veisėjai (Lazdijai Distr.). Audio record contains a speech of S. Geda about the Wars of Independence, partisans and unity of the Lithuania nation[48]. Personal archive of Aldona Pranckėnienė hold an invitation[49] to the first Molėtai Sąjūdis rally, video footage[50] includes members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, Molėtai Distr. Sąjūdis initiative group members, deportees, clergymen and district representatives of the LCP. The speakers emphasized the changes within the entire Soviet Union, relations between authority and people, devastation of cultural monuments, fate of the Lithuanian deportees, the signature collecting campaign against the construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant has been captured during the rally, rally participants singing “Lietuva brangi” (Dear Lithuania) and photographers.  

Usually the city/district initiative groups of the Sąjūdis used to be established prior to the first rally of the Sąjūdis or after the rally, e.g., Vilkaviškis Sąjūdis Initiative Group was established in July, while the first rally was held on the 27th August. Personal archive of P. Uleckas holds a photograph with participants of the rally Vilkaviškis, national symbols, posters: “Our language is our fortune”, “Here is out country Lithuania”, “Once you pollute your home, you pollute nature and Lithuania”, “We are for M. Gorbachev, those who are against us, they are against the reform”.  

The Sąjūdis support groups within cities and districts have been established in institutions and enterprises. They have been established according to the profession or place of residence, activities of the support groups have been coordinated by the city or district initiative group and later by the council. In particular, Jurbarkas District Sąjūdis support group activity protocol[51], containing a written exhortation of A. Pečiukaitis (member of the Jurbarkas District Sąjūdis Council) to establish the Sąjūdis support group in the Jurbarkas District Nemunas collective farm, with the group taking care of the ordering of the small town of Seredžius and helping to resolve ecology issues. District Sąjūdis Council members have been distributed according to the areas of activity, e.g. organizational, financial, ecological, cultural, publishing, etc. Sąjūdis initiative groups used to be established nearly at the same time as the Sąjūdis support groups in the workplaces. However, sometimes the process used to be inverted, by establishing the Sąjūdis support groups in the workplaces in the first place and the Sąjūdis City and District initiative Groups in the second place[52]. Establishment of the support group in the workplaces can be testified by the documents of Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė) Food Industry Automaton Production Alliance (hereafter – FIAPA) LPS support group regarding its activities, relations with the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, cultural heritage of the region, resolution of ecological issues[53], Kapsukas FIAPA LPS support group has initiated a social poll regarding the redemption of the name of Marijampolė[54], whereby many people were for the redemption of the name of Marijampolė, the arranged commemoration of the 16th of February, scenario[55], names of the speakers. The documents are kept in the personal archive of P. Uleckas.  

The Sąjūdis support groups in Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda have been coordinated by the assemblies of representatives. In other small towns and districts of Lithuania close relationship between the Sąjūdis support groups have been maintained by the coordinators of the Sąjūdis Minor Seimas. Personal archive of P. Uleckas stores lists of coordinators and members of the LPS Marijampolė Distr., Kalvarija, Kazlų Rūda and list of candidates to the Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė) City and District Sąjūdis Minor Seimas.  

In order to draw attention due to liberation of political prisoners, the participants of the unarmed resistance Petras Cidzikas and Algimantas Andreika have started hunger strike on the 17th of August in the Gediminas Square, which has lasted until the 26th of August, when the fasting persons and the Sąjūdis have concluded an agreement on the establishment of the General Committee for the Salvation of Political Prisoners. The house[56] of the fasting people is captured in the positives and negatives of A. Juozapaitis, J. Česnavičius and B. Kašelionis The tricolour flag is raised above the roof of the house[57], there is a cloth on the wall containing strophe of the “Tautiška giesmė” by V. Kudirka and request to release the following prisoners: Balys Gajauskas, Gintaras Iešmantas, Viktoras Petkus, Sigitas Tamkevičius, Valdemaras Karaliūnas. People reading the notes, at the Archicathedral, posters: “Hunger strike for the political prisoners and deportees"[58], “Freedom for political prisoners”, “Give back the rights to Alfonsas Svarinskas and Tomas Venclovas[59].  

On the 23rd of August, 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi–Germany signed a Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact and secret protocols, which lead to the occupation of Lithuania by the USSR on the 15th of June, 1940. The Sąjūdis sought to leak the following documents to the society: on the 5th of August they were published in the No. 15 of “Sąjūdžio žinios” and a rally was arranged in Vingis Park in order to condemn these documents. The permission for the rally has been granted and it was attended by around 250 thousand people[60]. The Sąjūdis used the publication “Sąjūdžio žinios“, phone line, national television and the newspaper “Vakarinės naujienos“ to invite people to the rally.  

The rally has been broadcasted by the television and part of this broadcast has been saved in an audio record with a speech of V. Landsbergis on the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and crimes committed by Hitlerism and Stalinism, proposal of Justinas Marcinkevičius to adopt resolution requiring to publish the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and its secret protocols with maps to the society and to condemn them as serious violation of the international law. Historian Liudas Truska referred to the secret protocols as the “funeral bells” for the independence of the Baltic States. The participants have heard an audio record of the speech of Juozas Urbšys, the last Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania (1938–1940), about negotiation with J. Stalin, the fate of Lithuania after the secret protocols. V. Landsbergis read to the attendance a referral from 28 US Senators to Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian people, where they expressed recognition of the Stalinism crime revelation campaign and a possibility for the Baltic people to honour a memory of the deportees[61]. The rally participants sang “Tautiška giesmė” by V. Kudirka and “Lietuva brangi” by Maironis, lit the candles and chanted: “Freedom for prisoners of conscience”. People donated money in order to build monument for the victims of Stalinism. The following moments of the rally are captured in the negatives and positives of Vytautas Daraškevičius, Aleksandras Juozapaitis and Bronius Kašelionis: symbolic barbed wire garland with tricolour flags and mourning band at the stage of Vingis Park[62], large tricolour flag with black ribbon above the Vingis Park stage, rallying[63], standing members of the unarmed resistance Nijolė Sadūnaitė, Julius Sasnauskas, Robertas Grigas, speakers[64], many tricolour flags with black ribbons attached, national Latvian and Estonian flags, lit candles.  

Worsening ecological situation in the Baltic Sea encouraged the Sąjūdis, “Atgaja”, “Žemyna” clubs, as well as green movement of Latvia and Estonia to arrange common protest campaign “Apkabinkime Baltiją” (Let’s embrace the Baltic Sea) on the 3rd of September. The campaign was attended by around 100 thousand people: Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians. The Sąjūdis has agreed with the USSR Frontline Army Command on the standing of the protest participants[65] in the forbidden areas of the Baltic Sea shore. Participants of the campaign holding hands and facing the sea[66], many young people, some of them wearing national clothes, many tricolour flags, posters: “The Baltic Sea can be awakened only by a free nation", “Our sea is dying, not only it’s disastrous, it’s disgraceful”; an exhibition of rubbish piles poured next to the flags of the states bordering with the Baltic Sea, with the size of the piles corresponding to the extent of pollution emitted by respective states, the Soviet Union is leader[67] 

Following the Sąjūdis rally of the 23rd of August the Soviet authority had a more stringent view. When the Sąjūdis has been preparing an official press release regarding the withdrawal of the construction of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant, it was prohibited to inform the society about this campaign and no permission has been granted. Despite of the interference of the authority, the Sąjūdis arranged a protest campaign “Gyvybės žiedas” (Circle of life) on the 16–18th of September. It has been to invite international commission to examine the reliability of the first and second reactors, signature collection campaign has started for international examination concerning the suspension of Ignalina nuclear power plant. Personal archive of Ona Volungevičiūtė holds 508 signatures of Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė) citizens regarding the arrival of the commission to examine Ignalina nuclear power plant[68]. Campaign participants Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians (total of 20 thousand people) linked their arms and surrounded the construction site of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant with a “Circle of life”. The order has been maintained by the so called “Green Armlet” guards. Negatives and positives of Valdas Lapašauskas and A. Sabaliauskas contain captured headquarters of the protest campaign with a signboard “Ignalinos A†E”, participants preparing posters and labels indicating radioactivity, built tents, campaign participants watching a play of the Vilnius Old Town Theatre “Kęstučio mirtis” (Death of Kęstutis), listening to the songs of Veronika Povilionienė, the Sąjūdis Initiative Group member Z. Vaišvila[69]  at the microphone, protest campaign participants going to the construction site of the third block of Ignalina nuclear power plant, national Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian flag, youth carrying posters “Ignalinos A†E” [70] on their backs.  

Following the second secret protocol of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed on the 28th of August, 1939, the whole territory of Lithuania has fallen under the USSR sphere of influence. Condemning the fact, the LLL arranged unauthorized rally on the 28th of September, 1988. The authority did not grant the permission and warned the organizers about a possible use of force. Special militia divisions have scattered a crowd of 15–20 thousand people upon the order of the Soviet authority. The campaign participants have been beaten with rubber sticks, detained for no earthy reason; the ones fasting for the liberation of political prisoners have also been arrested at night. They have been forcibly transported and imprisoned in the premises belonging to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The repression executed by the Soviet structures has become known in the society as the “Bananų balius” (Feast of bananas). A photograph of J. Česnavičius contains captured Soviet soldiers surrounding the Gediminas Square[71]. In response to the brutality executed by the militia, the Sąjūdis and LLL have arranged a common protest campaign. The photograph of J. Česnavičius contains members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group V. Landsbergis, A. Skučas and Z. Vaišvila[72] in Gediminas Square, other protest campaign participants. The society has expressed its discontent due to the events of the 28th of September by picketing at the building of the State Committee on Television and Radio-Broadcasting against the Television, which has not reacted to the events of the 28–29th of September in the Gediminas Square and ignored the requirement of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group to capture and objectively announce information about these events[73]. On the 4th of October, around 2 thousand people picketed at the contemporary authority institutions, thus condemning the brutality of militia, and requested the First Secretary of the LCP R. Songaila to assume the responsibility.  

In its very first rallies, the Sąjūdis has requested to legitimize the Lithuanian tricolour flag, Vytis and “Tautiška giesmė” of V. Kudirka prohibited by the Soviet authority, as well as to grant Lithuanian a status of the official language. Tricolour flag, Vytis, Pillars of Gediminids and “Tautiška giesmė” of V. Kudirka have been legitimize following the order of the Presidium of the Supreme Council (hereafter – SC) of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (hereafter – LSSR) on the 6th of October. Tricolour flag has been solemnly raised in the Gediminas Tower on the 7th of October. Architect Vytautas Landsbergis Žemkalnis, who gave a speech in the rally, has emphasized the unity of people, support to the movement of the Sąjūdis and the importance of the tricolour flag to the Lithuanian nation, while A. Juozaitis highlighted freedom and independence of the nation and Justinas Marcinkevičius reminded of the historical and spiritual meaning of the Gediminas Hill and Gediminas Tower. A crowd of thousands of people, tricolour flags[74] and tricolour waving in the Gediminas Tower[75] have been captured in negatives and colour positives of V. Daraškevičius and B. Kašelionis.  

Preparation for the Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis has started in September, after the establishment of the Organizational Committee chaired by A. Medalinskas. Organizational group has prepared the guidelines of the Sąjūdis structure by defining the supreme decision-body of the LPS, the Congress, elected according to the territories and public movements[76]. Elections of the delegates to the LPS Constituent Congress were held in cities and districts in October. Personal archive of Nomeda Simėnienė holds a document concerning election of the Panevėžys District delegates to the Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis[77], candidates to the delegates and voting results are listed. Negatives of V. Mozūraitis contain captured departure of Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė) Sąjūdis delegates to the Constituent Congress of the Lithuanian Reform Movement Sąjūdis[78], raised tricolour flags and coat of arms of Marijampolė City. The Constituent Congress of the LPS was meant to elect the Sąjūdis Seimas, while the Seimas had to elect the Sąjūdis Seimas Council. System of the elections to the Congress and to the Sąjūdis Seimas have been addressed during the sessions of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, while Statute of the Sąjūdis, as well as the Sąjūdis General Programme have been drafted and published in the press for a public discussion on the 12th of October.   

 

Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis  

The Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis took place on the 22nd–23rd of October, 1988. Once tensions between the Soviet authority and the Sąjūdis have lowered, the First Secretary of the CPSU (LCP) R. Songaila was replaced by Algirdas Mykolas Brazauskas. After permission was granted, the Congress was arranged in the biggest hall at the time, the Vilnius Palace of Sports.  

According to the data of the Mandates Commission, the Constituent Congress of the LPS was attended by 1021 delegates and around 4 thousand guests. Considering the proposals of the delegates and prior remarks from the people, the Congress has adopted the General 9-part Programme of the Sąjūdis, emphasizing the Lithuania’s aim to regain statehood, efforts in reviving public conscious society, support of the Sąjūdis in restoring the democratic election procedures, social justice, nurturance of Lithuanian culture and economic independence (document from the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė). The Sąjūdis statute defining the structure of LPS that allowed the Sąjūdis to become a fully legal entity[79] has also been adopted along with 30 resolutions, including resolutions on sovereignty, economic independence, status of Lithuanian language, citizenship of the Lithuanian SSR, crime of Stalinism and general rehabilitation, political prisoners, LSSR territorial armed forces and redemption of cultural values. Declaration of good will for the peace in all the areas of life and approval of reform.  

The Congress delegates have presented 171 members of the Sąjūdis Seimas, elected during the conferences of the Sąjūdis support groups in cities and districts[80], and approved the proposal on co-optation of the LPS Initiative Group in corpore into the Seimas. Delegates have additionally elected 15 members of the Sąjūdis Seimas[81]. The democratically elected the Sąjūdis Seimas was comprised of 220 members. A 35-member the Sąjūdis Seimas Council was elected during the first session of the Sąjūdis Seimas, following the adoption of regulation. The Congress was broadcasted by the television. During the Congress, the floor was given to the members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group, delegates from cities and districts, representative of the Latvian Popular Front Janis Gaigals, leader of the Estonian Popular Front Edgar Savisaar, as well as representatives of the Belarus Popular Front, club “Tremtinys”, LLL, Lithuanian World Community, clergy, Catholic women group “Caritas”, Vorkuta Lithuanians and LCP. The speakers talked about the necessity of democratic elections, sovereignty of the State of Lithuania, severe consequences of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Sąjūdis-driven reunion of the nation and possibilities for the Lithuanian deportees to return to their homeland. Palace of Sports was filled with high spirits; emotional speeches have been constantly interrupted by applause and chants “Lithuania!”, “Sąjūdis”. Members of the LPS Initiative Group have presented 8 programme announcements on the topics of Lithuania awakening, establishment of legal state, environmental pollution, economical independence of Lithuania, deterioration of national relations induced by the Soviet authority and proposal of draft Constitution of the LSSR.  

Communication with foreign Journalists: accreditations, arrangement of press conferences and preparation of the Congress bulletin in Lithuanian, English, German and Russian have been coordinated by international press centre, established on the 10th of October and managed by A. Čekuolis. The following documents are stored in the personal archive of Adolfas Uža, the Deputy Director for Organizational Matters of the Congress Press Centre: applications of journalists and photographers on accreditations to the Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis, lists accredited journalists, photographers and TV operators from Vilnius and other Lithuanian cities and districts, accreditation forms of journalists, photographers, interpreters and directors from Riga, Tallinn, Minsk and Moscow[82], containing names, workplaces, cities, countries and addresses of the persons, as well as the signatures of the persons who approved the forms. Information of the International Press Centre to journalists on the use of telecommunication means, work schedule of the International Press Centre, time of the arranged press conferences and information on interpreting in English, Spanish, Italian, French, German and Polish. The event was attended by more than 400 journalists, 103 of which were foreign journalists from 17 countries, who helped to disseminate information. The participants of the Congress press conference have been captured in the photographs of J. Česnavičius: A. Čekuolis, A. Juozaitis, V. Petkevičius and K. D. Prunskienė[83]. Negatives and photographs of J. Česnavičius, V. Daraškevičius, B. Kašelionis, Juozas Kazlauskas, Algirdas Sabaliauskas, Vidas Venslovaitis and V. Valiušaitis contain captured decorated hall, wide Lithuanian tricolour flag[84], stretched through the middle of the ceiling, down to the floor of the podium, right in the middle of the stage, white platform decorated with Pillars of Gediminids, tricolour made of flowers, chairpersons of the first session M. Lukšienė and Justinas Marcinkevičius[85], V. Landsbergis Žemkalnis[86], A. Juozaitis at the platform, TV operator at the podium, display panels present at the sides of the hall and showing names of the speakers, as well as message in Lithuanian and Russian “For our and your freedom!”[87], access to Palace of Sports decorated with huge labels containing inscription: “Sąjūdis. Constituent Congress, Vilnius 22–23/10/1988”, the gathered delegates, guests holding hands[88], a crowd of thousands of people with tricolour flags, posters, delegates raising voting cards in the hall, delegates gathered by the Archicathedral in the evening, members of the Sąjūdis Initiative Group going through the Gediminas Avenue, representatives of the Soviet authority, guests, folklore ensembles with candles, torches and tricolour flags[89], youth carrying Pillars of Gediminids.  

A. M. Brazauskas announced during the Congress that Vilnius Archicathedral would be returned to the faithful people. Cardinal V.Sladkevičius held Mass at the closed door of the Archicathedral on the morning of the 23rd of October. The event was broadcasted live by the television. Cardinal V. Sladkevičius with clergymen has been captured by the Archicathedral in the photograph of J. Česnavičius. During the Constituent Congress of the Sąjūdis, the Sąjūdis was granted with the mandate of the society to represent the interests of the nation[90]

 

The Sąjūdis: from an Institutionalized Organization to the Re-Establishment of the Independent State of Lithuania  

The draft amending and supplementing the Constitution of the USSR has been issued in October and provided for the Congress of People’s Deputies, which could amend the Constitution of the USSR, facilitate the possibility to revoke articles guaranteeing sovereignty of the Republic, and also provided for the Committee of Constitutional Supervision of the USSR, which would be granted with the right to revoke legal acts adopted by the Allied Republics[91]. In response to this draft, the Sąjūdis Seimas Council has adopted a resolution stating the articles, consistent with the Constitutions of individual Republics, can be included in the Constitution of the USSR and the Constitution of the USSR would enter into force only if it is ratified by the Parliaments of the Republics. In its letter to M. Gorbachev on the 2nd of November[92] the Sąjūdis Seimas Council has stated that the issued draft amending and supplementing the Constitution of the USSR, concerning the rights of the allied Republics, cannot be adopted during the session of the SC of the USSR due to its inadequate preparation. During the meeting of the representatives of the Sąjūdis, Latvian and Estonian Popular Fronts in Riga on the 8th of November, it has been decided that enactment of the draft amending and supplementing the Constitution of the USSR would result in an establishment of a centralized unitary state and would withdraw the right of the allied Republics to the political sovereignty, therefore a decision to collect signatures against the amendments of the Constitution of the USSR has been made. 

On the 9th of November edition of the “Atgimimo banga” (a show sponsored by the Sąjūdis) the Sąjūdis announced about the signature collecting campaign entitled “Milijonas parašų” (Million signatures) which was intended to prevent the consideration of this draft during the next session of the SC of the USSR (26th of November). A document addressed to the Presidium of the SC of the USSR (its copy is kept in the personal archive of R. J. Juodenis) states that the issued draft amending and supplementing the Constitution of the USSR violates the principles of a legal state, is inconsistent with the aims of the 19th Party Conference, limits the rights of the allied Republics and other states, as well as consolidates the centralized bureaucratic governing system.  

Two resolutions, condemning the draft amending and supplementing the Constitution of the USSR, the procedure for the election of People's Deputies of the USSR and the draft LSSR Constitution decided by an absolute majority of votes, been adopted during the first session of the Sąjūdis Seimas, held on the 13th of November. Session of the Sąjūdis Seimas has been captured in the negatives of J. Kazlauskas: members with attached labels with an inscription “No for the amendment of the Constitution by the CPSU”, some them examining the new edition of the LSSR Constitution[93]. The collection of signatures has been arranged by the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, the campaign within cities and districts has been coordinated by the Sąjūdis Council of Districts. A poster has been published overnight in order to advertise the campaign:[94] Soviet army soldiers with their backs in the red background, above them there is a flag with a note: “Collect signatures in your house!”, writing in Russian “Конституция” (Constitution). Signatures have been collected everywhere: in the streets, workplaces and even residential houses. Negatives and photographs of J. Kazlauskas, J. Česnavičius contain captured people signing against the amendments of the Constitution of the USSR in Vilnius, at the headquarters of the Sąjūdis[95], poster stating that the number of signatures collected is approaching to 1 million. Members of the Sąjūdis Seimas, who had arrived to the LPS Seimas session on the 13th, use to pass large files containing signatures[96]. In a short time (9–20th of November) 1.8 million signatures have been collected and brought to Moscow by Train on the 24th of November, as well as delivered to the members of the SC of the USSR by the representatives (members of the Sąjūdis Seimas) of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council A. Kaušpėdas, Č. Stankevičius, M. Laurinkus, S. Pečeliūnas, representative of the centre of coordination campaign preparation centre of the Sąjūdis Angonita Rupšytė. Meanwhile in Latvia similar petition has been signed by more than 1.1 million people, in Estonia by almost 1 million people, while 4 million people were against the centralization of the USSR authority during an informal referendum[97] 

Not all of the Lithuanian people have agreed with the ideas of the Sąjūdis. Lithuanians with pro-Soviet views and part of the pro-Soviet-minded persons, belonging to other nations (Russian, Polish) and residing in Lithuania, have expressed discontent with the activity of the Sąjūdis. This testifies to the establishment of the pro-Soviet organization “Socialistinis judėjimas už persitvarkymą Lietuvoje Vienybė, Jedinstvo, Jedność” (Social Movement for Reform in Lithuania, the Unity) (hereafter – the Jedinstvo) in Vilnius on the 4th of November. At first, “Jedinstvo” had declared its aim to “collaborate and start constructive dialog with Sąjūdis”, but later it failed to follow this intention. The organization was against Lithuanian becoming the official language of the LSSR and encouraged the Lithuanian communists to fight for their positions in consolidation of the Union of sovereign Republics, the USSR[98]. In response to the decree of the Presidium of the SC of the LSSR on the use of Lithuanian language, “Jedinstvo” arranged a rally on the 12th of February, 1989, with an attendance of 15 thousand people, protesting against the official Lithuanian language, requiring to revoke the decree and to retire A. Brazauskas along with other leaders of the LCP. It has been stated that a strike was to take place on the 15th of February against the idea to commemorate the Independence of Lithuania. The planned strike has never taken place. Negatives of J. Kazlauskas contain a captured crowed of people at the Vilnius Palace of Sports[99], holding writings in Russian “нет выход из ссрс” (There is no exit from the USSR); “национальная замкнутост – гибель нации” (national closure – death of the nation). “Jedinstvo” arranged a rally in Kalnai Park on the 10th of August, 1989 against the “discrimination of the Soviet army” and adopted a resolution concerning the view to the CPSU; the following demand was put forward: “No for the withdrawal of the Republic’s Communist Parties from the CPSU!”[100]. According to the notes for the agendas of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, stored in the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė, the matters concerning the activities of “Jedinstvo” and arrangement of strikes usually have been addressed considering the actions of “Jedinstvo”. With an approach of the Plenum of the CC of the CPSU, “Jedinstvo” arranged a rally in Kalnai Park on the 25th of June, 1989, which has been attended by 10 thousand people. During the rally, the resolution of the 18th Plenum of the SC of the LCP on the status of the LCP, declaration of Lithuanian as of the official language, draft law on citizenship, participants were for the autonomy of the Vilnius Region. In response to the requirement of “Jedinstvo”, people of Šalčininkai disagreeing with the declaration of autonomy in Šalčininkai District, have been collecting signatures under resolution on protest against the Šalčininkai Distr. Autonomy during the meeting with the USSR People’s Deputies A. Čekuolis, M. Laurinkus, A. Buračas and K. Motieka. The Presidium of the SC of the LSSR adopted a resolution on the 21st of September, 1989, on invalidation of the declaration of Šalčininkai and Vilnius Districts as national Polish territorial districts. 

During the session of the SC of the LSSR on the 17-18th of November, 1988, Lithuanian was endowed with a status of an official language, amendments to the Constitution of the LSSR concerning the flag and anthem were adopted, yet amendments to the Constitution of the LSSR concerning sovereignty were not adopted, nor was Estonia supported, which had previously adopted the amendment. Confrontation occurred between the Sąjūdis and the Soviet Authority. The Sąjūdis made an appeal to the SC of Estonia and Estonian Popular Front by expressing support to the decisions made by the SC of Estonia and regretting on failure to defend the proposals for constitutional amendments (as it can be interpreted from the copy of this document stored in the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė)[101]. The rally that took place by the SC of the LSSR has been captured in the negatives of J. Kazlauskas, as well as the rallying people holding such posters: “We demand the citizenship of the LSSR”, “Official Lithuanian language for Lithuania”[102], “Lithuania needs a real Constitution”, “Language is vital for a nation”, “Lithuania is a State”, „SOS, the nation perish once the mother tongue dies“, a rally participant with a megaphone, TV operators.  

A Moral Declaration of Independence[103] has been adopted during an extended session of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council on the 20th of November. Its copy is stored in the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė. It declares moral independence of Lithuania and adoption and respect of laws which do not constrain the independence of Lithuania. Retirement of Vytautas Astrauskas, the Chairman of the Presidium of the SC of LSSR, and Secretaries of the LCP Lionginas Šepetys, Chairman of the SC of LSSR, and Jonas Gureckas, Secretary of the Presidium, was demanded during the session of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council on the 21st of November. Soviet authority position with respect to the Sąjūdis has tightened: broadcast of “Atgimimo banga” was cancelled on the 23rd of November and articles blaming the Sąjūdis for the incitement of confrontation have been released. In response to the attempts of the LCP to disunite the leadership of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, the Sąjūdis Seimas elected Vytautas Landsbergis as the Chairman of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council during session of the 25th of November. The aim of the Sąjūdis was the sovereignty of Lithuania, as it was declared in the Declaration of Moral Unity adopted by the Sąjūdis Seimas Council on the very same day. The sovereignty must be the reason to overcome all the disagreement occurring between the individuals[104]

Under escort of the USSR deputies, the authority was criticized for the restrictions of the activity of the Sąjūdis during the Sąjūdis rally on the 26th of November in the Cathedral Square. The rally was attended by the members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, representatives of the LCP and only two of the invited USSR deputies, A. Ferensas and V. Mikučiauskas. The following was captures in the negatives of V. Daraškevičius and J. Kazlauskas: members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, speakers, a crowd of thousands of people and youth holding posters: “Deputy, defeat the slave inside you!”, “Homeland Lithuania is waiting for your decisive actions”, “We shall not let anybody to divide Lithuania”, “For the democratic constitution”, “We will not die without the independence”, „Occupation Army, we want you out!”, “Statehood for Lithuania”[105]

During the 2nd session of the LPS Seimas, held on the 4th of December, discussions have been held on the political trends in the Soviet Union, prospective strategies and course of action of the Sąjūdis, resolution “On the Sąjūdis activities” was adopted providing for that the deals arranged between Hitler and Stalin in 1939 should be recognized as illegal, that the freedom of self-determination should be implemented through the people's referendum, supremacy of the laws of the LSSR against the laws of the Soviet Union should be defended, on democratic People’s election in Lithuania and economic autonomy[106]. Session in the Academy of Sciences was captured in the negatives of J. Kazlauskas: voting members of Seimas[107], speakers.  

Sessions of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council have been held almost each Tuesday, between the sessions of the Sąjūdis Seimas. These sessions included discussions on the political situation, national relations, elections, the Sąjūdis press preparation for the sessions of Seimas, draft documents, activities of educational, cultural and re-establishing institutions, organization of events and financial matters (personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė holds agendas and notes of the Seimas Council)[108] 

On the 7th of December, the Sąjūdis organized relief for the victims of the earthquake in Armenia, considering their severe condition. Personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė contains a transcript of the Session of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council on the 13th of December with a record of 100 thousand Rubbles transferred from the Treasury of the Sąjūdis[109]. Personal archive of J. Janonis holds a financial document of the LPS Vievis Poultry Farm Support Group concerning the money (1302 Rubbles) given to the representative of the Vilnius Centre of Enterprises and Factories by the representative of the Vievis Poultry Farm J. Janonis in order to support the victims of the Armenian earthquake[110] 

Broadcast of the “Atgimimo banga” was resumed on the 14th of December. Christmas Eve was celebrated in Lithuania on the 24th of December for the first time after the war. On the request of the Sąjūdis Seimas, Lithuanian people have lit candles on the windowsills at their home, thus joining the symbolic family referendum and unanimously speaking up for the statehood of Lithuania. Candles lit in the windows of apartment buildings were captured in the negatives of V. Daraškevičius[111] 

The law on the election to the Congress of the People's Deputies of the USSR was issued in December. The Sąjūdis disapproved the LLL invitation to boycott the election and decided to run their own candidates for the People’s Deputies of the USSR in 10 territorial and 42 national territorial counties. Personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė holds transcription of the 13th of December of the Seimas Council containing the LSP Elective Group comprised of the following members: Egidijus Bičkauskas, Andrius Kubilius, Mečys Laurinkus, Tautvydas Lideikis and Angonita Rupšytė. E. Bičkauskas and M. Laurinkus were selected to run for the People’s Deputies of the USSR. Following the Law on Elections, candidates were nominated by the Labour Collectives. County meetings were also provided for in Law and were meant to make decisions on the registration of the nominated candidates[112]. The county meetings have taken place in two counties only, after considering the protest of the Sąjūdis regarding the county meetings. Organization and coordination of the Sąjūdis election campaign were discussed during the meeting of the election coordinators, attended by the members of the Sąjūdis Councils of cities and districts. 

During the second session of the Sąjūdis Seimas it was decided that Sąjūdis would nominate its candidates to the 5 vacancies in the SC of the LSSR. Minutes of the sessions of the Lithuania Reform Movement Sąjūdis Seimas Council indicate that it has been decided to nominate the candidacies of the following members of the Sąjūdis Seimas: V. Landsbergis (in Trakai Distr., Vievis), Z. Vaišvila and V. Petkevičius (Šiauliai, Žemaitė county) and K. Motieka (Raseiniai, Viduklė County). This is testified by the protocols of the labour collectives which nominated the candidacy of Vytautas Landsbergis during the election to the SC of the LSSR[113]. The candidates supported by the Sąjūdis competed with the LKP candidates. The Sąjūdis won in two counties: Z. Vaišvila collected 75 per cent of votes, while K. Motieka collected 82 per cent[114]. V. Landsbergis collected 47 per cent in Vievis. Following the Law on Election, for the deputy to be elected he or she had to collect 50 per cent of votes of the total registered electors. Personal archive of J. Janonis stores a document „Ekspress Information” on the results of elections to the SC of the LSSR in the Vievis electoral county No. 318”, containing the number of votes collected by the candidates[115]

The Awakening period was the starting point for the establishment of political parties and public organizations. Lithuanian Democratic Party (hereafter – LDP) was reinstated on the 5th of February. The LDP logo, participants [116] and speakers are captured in the photograph of J. Česnavičius. The reinstated LDP and the LLL arranged a rally on the 10th of February condemning the secret protocols of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. During the rally, Moscow was requested to recognize the independence of the Baltic States. On the 29–30th of July LDP arranged a constituent congress, which approved the programme and statute, elected the LDP Council, issued the LDP declaration of the independence of Lithuania, on the development of the re-establishment of the independent state and resolution “on the non-recognition policy”. Green Party was established in Kaunas on the 15th of July. On the 12th August, it was declared during the constituent conference of the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party (hereafter – LSDP) that LSDP comprehensively supported and would support the activity of the Sąjūdis and is for the consolidation of democratic political powers for the benefit of the independence of Lithuania. The speakers of the conference were captured in the photographs of J. Česnavičius[117]. The organization of scouts was reinstated on the 12th of February. The following was captured in the negatives of J. Kazlauskas: scouts, stage decorated with large tricolour flag and scout logo, scouts with flags heading towards the House of Signatories through the Pilies Street[118]. The following organizations have been reinstated in during the period from March to December: lawyers, geographers, librarians, filmmakers, engineers, Catholic Federation “Ateitis”, women, writers, National Olympic Committee, congresses of educators and cultural workers[119]

Celebration of the retrieval of Vilnius Archicathedral took place on the 5th of February, 1989, and was attended by 20 thousand people. Negatives of V. Daraškevičius and J. Kazlauskas contain a captured crowd of people with tricolour flags[120] and posters “Red Army go home”, “We returned to Europe”[121] at the Archicathedral, as well as clergymen and faithful people in the Archicathedral. 

Three members of the European Parliament “Baltic Intergroup” visited Vilnius on the 6th of February and met with the representative of the Sąjūdis, LLL, Democratic Party, bishop Julijonas Steponavičius and representatives of the LCP. The delegation was presented with a declaration of 24 members of the LPS Seimas defining the main objective of the Sąjūdis, i.e., the Independence of Lithuania. Negatives of J. Kazlauskas contain captured participants of the meeting – members of the Sąjūdis Seimas, Algis Klimaitis[122] and photographer. Transcription of the sessions of the 3rd of January of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council (present in the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė) indicates that General Secretary of the European Parliament “Baltic Intergroup” was authorized by the Sąjūdis Seimas Council to represent the LPS in the European Parliament. 

LPS Seimas declaration was adopted by LPS during the 3rd session of Seimas, wherein the Sąjūdis expressed the willingness of the nation to peacefully regain its rights, emphasized the freedom of self-determination of nations, pursuit of legal, political, economic and cultural autonomy of Lithuania and political sovereignty (document from the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė). This declaration was the first official document of the Sąjūdis to openly declare the Independence of Lithuania[123]. Session was broadcasted by television. The participants of the session in the Kaunas Musical Theatre, large tricolour flag on the stage, big poster with an image of the “Laisvė” monument in Kaunas[124] and V. Landsbergis, the Chairman of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, were captured in the photograph of A. Sabaliauskas.  

The 16th of February was publicly celebrated in the entire Lithuania for the first time during the Soviet occupation period. Memorial board with an inscription “An Act of Independence of Lithuania was declared in house on the 16th of February, 1918” was unveiled in Vilnius, at the House of Signatories. Negative and photographs of J. Česnavičius and R. Grigas contain captured V. Landsbergis Žemkalnis[125], V. Landsbergis and attendants with tricolour flags[126]. The restored monument “Laisvė” of Juozas Zikaras was solemnly unveiled in Kaunas, in the backyard of War Museum. Negatives of A. Juozapaitis and A. Sabaliauskas contain a captured crowd of thousands people[127], members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, clergymen, cardinal V. Sladkevičius, representatives of the LCP, young people surrounding the monument “Laisvė” with national bands[128], tricolour flags, photographers, TV operators and speakers. Members of Jurbarkas Distr. Sąjūdis raising tricolour flags on the Polemonas mound during the commemoration of the 16th of February were captured in the photographs of A. Pečiukaitis[129]. Commemoration of the 16th of February in the enterprise “Fasa”[130], with the attendance of V. Landsbergis Žemkalnis, was captured in the photograph of P. Uleckas.  

The Soviet authority was worried about arrangement of the commemorations of the 16th of February and increasing support of the society to the Sąjūdis. The participants of the 17th Plenum of the CC of the LCP on the 21st of February were for the restriction of the Sąjūdis activities, strengthening of the LCP and censorship of the Sąjūdis press. “Atgimimo banga” was banned on the 22nd of February and no posters of the Sąjūdis supported candidates to the People’s Deputies of the USSR have been printed.  

Congress of the Lithuanian Farmers’ Movement took place on the 25–26th of February, 1989, and was attended by the representatives of the Lithuanian Farmers’ Union, Sąjūdis and LDP. A programme and 23 resolutions were adopted, 800 delegates elected a Farmer’s Movement Council and Presidium. The authority was addressed in relation with the renewal of the “Atgimimo banga” broadcast and suppression of the Sąjūdis press. Representatives of the authority were not present in the Congress, although they had been invited thereto. Participants gathered in the hall of the Cultural Centre of Trade Unions, stage decorated with a writing “Congress of the Lithuanian Farmers’ Movement”[131], speakers.  

The Sąjūdis labour community “Labora”, established on the 2nd of March by the representatives of the Vilnius Industrial Enterprises’ Sąjūdis support groups, declared that it was an integral part of the Sąjūdis and was following the programme of Sąjūdis. Personal archive of Gediminas Jurčiukonis holds a list of assistants of G. Jurkučionis, the members and coordinator of the Council of the Vilnius Industrial Enterprises' Sąjūdis labour community “Labora”, declaration of “Labora” on the sovereignty of Lithuania, wherein the community expresses its approval of the declaration of the Sąjūdis Seimas adopted on the 15th of February, 1989, “Labora” is for the establishment of Coordination Council for the political powers seeking for the autonomy of Lithuania. Personal archive of J. Janonis stores the declaration and documents of the aims and activities of the Vilnius Workers’ Union which is for the unity of the nation[132] 

After “Atgimimo banga” was banned, the Sąjūdis arranged a pre-election rally in the Kalnai Park on the 8th of March with the attendance of the Sąjūdis supported candidates to the People’s Deputies of the USSR.  Representatives of the Sąjūdis, thousands of people [133] with tricolour flags and posters [134] were captured in the negatives and colour positives of V. Daraškevičius and B. Kašelionis.  

The list of the Sąjūdis supported candidates to the People’s Deputies of the USSR was published in the “Sąjūdžio žinios” on the 7th of March. Election campaign has been also actively carried out in the districts: cars decorated with the Sąjūdis logos were used in meetings with citizens, stands were installed by the headquarters of the Sąjūdis and information on the Sąjūdis supported candidates was disseminated. The Sąjūdis had the following election slogan: “For the Sąjūdis, for Lithuania”[135]. Personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė stores abstracts of protocols of the LPS Seimas Council[136], containing records of considered matters on the nomination of candidates, specificity of electoral counties and organization of the election campaign. In some counties, where majority of the population was comprised of non-Lithuanians, election campaign was not going smooth for the Sąjūdis candidates. Personal archive of J. Janonis stores the following canvassing documents of Virgilijus Čepaitis, a candidate to the People’s Deputies of the USSR in the electoral county No. 686, and Julius Juzeliūnas, a candidate to the People’s Deputies of the USSR in the electoral county No. 251: flyers, letter of the candidate to the People’s Deputy of the USSR J. Juzeliūnas to the Chairman of the Executive Committee of Vievis City, Chairman of the Executive Committee of Vievis District on the number and list of the electorate of Vievis City and Vievis District; summary of the results of election to the People’s Deputies of the USSR in Trakai District, poster “Electors, stay alert” showing an elector wearing a tie with the tricolour flag above him and the Soviet flag beneath him. Negatives of V. Mozūratis contain captured pre-election agitation of the Sąjūdis candidates to the People’s Deputies of the USSR A. Buračas and R. Gudaitis in Kapsukas (presently Marijampolė), speakers A. Buračas, S. Geda and R. Gudaitis[137], Marijampolė Sąjūdis representatives and pre-election agitation of S. Geda and A. Buračas in Lazdijai District[138].  

The Sąjūdis was legitimized just before the elections to the to the People’s Deputies of the USSR on the 16th of March, 1989. The elections have been observed by foreign journalists. In the first round of the elections to the People’s Deputies of the USSR on the 26th of March, 31 the Sąjūdis supported candidates were announced as winners (out of 39). The Sąjūdis candidates have withdrawn their candidacies after the black LCP Plenum against A. M. Brazauskas and V. Beriozovas. On the 5th of April members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council arranged a live “Atgimimo banga” (“Awakening wave”) outside the television building. People have been encouraged to vote for the Sąjūdis candidates. 5 of the 8 candidates supported by the Sąjūdis won during the second round of the elections (9th of April). The Sąjūdis won 36 seats (out of 39) and got around 60 per cent of votes from the present electors and 49 per cent of total number of electors. Election results have been discussed during the 4th session of the LPS Seimas held on the 1st of April. Resolution on the draft Constitution of the LSSR and declaration of the economic autonomy of the allied Republics was also adopted.  

The first meeting of the Sąjūdis representatives B. Genzelis, V. Landsbergis, R. Ozolas and K. D. Prunskienė and Anatoly Lukyanov, the Chairman of the Presidium of the SC of the USSR, took place in the Kremlin on the 6th of April, 1989. Notes stored in the personal archive of O. Volungevičiūtė contain the material from the sessions of the LPS Seimas Council (matters on the new political status of Lithuania in the USSR, reorganization of the LCP, youth military service in their own state and bringing back of the remains of the deportees.  

The rally “Constitution and Democracy”, arranged by the LDP on the 16th of April, was attended by the representatives of LSDP, LKDP and the Sąjūdis. The rally participants holding the following posters were captured in the positives of J. Česnavičius and B. Kašelionis: “With the Sąjūdis to the freedom of nations with a multi-party system”[139], “Soviet–Nazi Pact must be liquidated”, “Georgia, Lithuania supports your fight for the Independence”, speakers, TV operators[140] 

The 4th session of the LPS Seimas (on the 23rd of April) included assessment of the political situation in Lithuania, discussions on the draft laws on the LSSR Constitution, Referendum, Citizenship and Elections, as well as the draft Statute of Seimas, adoption of the resolution on amendment of the articles of the LSSR Constitution[141]. In reaction to the repressions of the Soviet structures against peaceful protesters in Tbilisi on the 9th of April, 1989, the LDP arranged an organized mourning procession along the Gediminas Avenue on the 23rd of April. Photographs and negatives of V. Daraškevičius and J. Česnavičius contain captured participants by the M. Mažvydas National Library, procession along the Gediminas Avenue, LDP representatives carrying lit candles[142], posters: “Russian Army – the genocide of nations”, “Russian Empire is our enemy”, tricolour flags with mourning ribbons, cross carried in front, TV operators, flowers place along the Cathedral wall, posters: “We mourn with you, Georgia”, “It hurts when you suffer”, people lighting candles[143]

The general programme of the Sąjūdis was also supported by the Lithuanian Workers’ Union, established on the 29th of April (the constituent congress took place in Klaipėda). Personal archive of J. Janonis stores the statute of the Klaipėda Workers’ Union[144], which comprise defined objectives, membership, organizational structure, financial support and legal status of the organization. The constituent congress of the Union took place on the 1st of July, 1989, wherein a decision was made that the LWU would act against the monopolization in the politics, economy and social area and would seek to have its representatives in the State authority and governing bodies of all levels. The main objective of the LWU is the Independence of Lithuania. Congress participants voting by raising their cards[145] were captured in the photographs of J. Česnavičius.  

During the Sąjūdis period, historical monuments, demolished during the Soviet period all through Lithuania, have been reconstructed, including the monument “Lietuvai Motinai” (For Mother Lithuania) dedicated to the Independence of Lithuania and rebuilt on the 7th of May, 1989. The monument with a carving and inscription “Lietuvai Motinai”, as well as a fragment of the demolished monument placed alongside, were captured in the negatives of V. Mozūraitis[146].

During the commemoration of the S. Darius and S. Girėnas flight over the Atlantic Ocean, three Lithuanian yachts, “Audrė”, “Dailė” and “Lietuva”, departed from the Klaipėda Port on the 13th of May, 1989. Crews of the yachts navigating through a raised bridge and people escorting them were captured in the negatives of Ričardas Grigas[147].

Representatives of the Sąjūdis, Estonian and Latvian Fronts have gathered to the Baltic Assembly that took place in Tallinn on the 13–14th of May, 1989. Quests from the Armenian, Azerbaijani, Belarusian, Georgian and Ukrainian movements, as well representatives of the Russian informal associations were among the invited. The Assembly participants heard a recorded greeting speech of the last Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Lithuania J. Urbšys[148] (audio recording). The Assembly included discussions on economic autonomy, objective of the Baltic States to gain sovereignty, honouring the memory of Romas Kalanta and adoption of the following documents: Declaration of the Rights of the Baltic Nations, emphasizing the objective of the nation to regain the political sovereignty, Resolution on the Crimes of Stalinism which was intended to request the SC of the USSR to recognize the policy of Stalinism and political terror system against the Baltic States as the crimes against humanity, Declaration of economic autonomy of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Appeal to the Congress of the People's Deputies of the USSR regarding the threat of a war posed by the State against its people, Appeal to the Democratic Powers of the Soviet Union, letters to the Chairman of the Presidium of the SC of the USSR and the Prosecutor General of the USSR regarding the arrested members of the Armenian Karabakh Committee, Appeal to the Leaders of the Members States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, Secretary General of the UN and Chairman of the Presidium of the SC of the USSR. It was the first time when the objective of the Baltic States to restore their Independence was openly mentioned[149]. Chairmen of the Movements Edgar Savisaar, Dainis Ivans and V. Landsbergis sign an agreement on common objectives and cooperation intentions and established the Baltic Council.  

Amendments to the Constitution of the LSSR were adopted during the session of the SC of the LSSR on the 18th of May, guaranteeing sovereignty, right to the territory of Lithuania and primacy of laws of the Republic. During the Sąjūdis rally on the 20th of May (the escort of the People's Deputies of the USSR), it was required to defend the resolutions, constitutional amendments and declaration of sovereignty adopted by the SC of the LSSR on the 18th of May[150]. The Deputies were authorised to demand the Congress of the People's Deputies of the USSR to declare the secret protocols of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact as illegal and invalid[151]. Negatives of V. Daraškevičius contain a crowd of thousands of people with national tricolour flags[152] and speakers in the Kalnai Park.  

The Congress of the People's Deputies of the USSR commenced on the 25th of May, 1989, and was attended by 2250 deputies, including 58 deputies from Lithuania. The Congress has formed a permanent Parliament comprised of two chambers: Union Council (270 deputies) and Council of Nationalities (271 deputies). Lithuanian deputies Vaidotas Antanaitis, A. M. Brazauskas, A. Buračas and K. D. Prunskienė were elected to the Union Council. Egidijus Bičkauskas, B. Genzelis, Sigitas Kudarauskas, Jūratė Kupliauskienė, Nikolajus Medvedevas, Kazimieras Motieka, Juozas Olekas, Kazimieras Uoka, E. Vilkas and K. Zaleckas were elected to the Council of Nations[153]. Members of the Lithuanian delegation (except Ivanas Tichonovičius and Anicetas Brodavskis representing the pro-Soviet powers) acted unanimously. During the Congress, Deputies from the Baltic States raised a question on withdrawal of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, expressed protest against massacre in Tbilisi, establishment of the Committee of Constitutional Supervision of the USSR, possessing the right to revoke legal acts adopted by the Republics[154]. Notwithstanding of the opposition of many participants of the Congress, a Deputy Commission “on political and legal assessment of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939” (chaired by A. Yakovlev) was established.  

Around 70 thousand people were present in the rally, during the meeting with the People’s Deputies of the USSR on the 11th of June. Negatives of V. Daraškevičius and A. Sabaliauskas contain a captured crowd of thousands of people holding tricolour flags[155] and posters: “To cancel the execution of the Soviet-Nazi Pact, take the occupational army out of Lithuania, and compensate the damage caused during the occupation”[156], members of the Sąjūdis Seimas, and representatives of LPK (the Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists). 

When the Sąjūdis decided to commemorate the massive deportations all through Lithuania, the 14th of June was officially declared as the Day of Mourning of Hope, following the order of the SC of the LSSR on the 9th of June, 1989. Chapel for deportees was consecrated in Vilnius Archicathedral and the monument “Trys kryžiai” (“Three Crosses”) was rebuilt. Negatives and photographs of J. Česnavičius and K. Svėrys contain captured young people with national clothes standing next to the rebuilt monument[157], people surrounding the monument with herbage bands; tricolour flag with a black ribbon attached;[158] people putting flowers, candles, Cardinal V. Sladkevičius with other clergymen. In 1941, people have been deported to the GULAG camps in cattle trucks from the Naujoji Vilnia railway station. Negatives of V. Daraškevičius and K. Svėrys contain captured people putting flowers and candles down on the rails in Naujoji Vilnia[159] and standing by the monument “Lietuvos tremtiniams 1940–1953” (For the Lithuanian Deportees 1940–1953)[160]. Negatives of V.Daraškevičius contain captured people gathered in Kaunas with national tricolour flags with black ribbons attached, candles and flowers[161]. Negatives of V. Mozūraitis and R. Rusteika contain commemoration of the 14th of June in Marijampolė, commemoration participants, members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, Marijampolė members of the Sąjūdis, tricolour flags with mourning ribbons attached[162]. Negatives of V. Mozūraitis and R. Rusteika contain commemoration of the 14th of June in Marijampolė, commemoration participants, members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, Marijampolė members of the Sąjūdis, tricolour flags with mourning ribbons attached[163]. Photograph of V. Rimavičius contains captured tricolour flag with black ribbon attached and raised by the Giedraičiai chapel, Molėtai Distr. Sąjūdis members holding posters: “Honour for the deportees who died for the Homeland Lithuania”, “Lithuania must be free, Lithuanian Nationalist Union”[164].  

The 5th session of the LPS Seimas, held on the 18th of June, included assessment of the activities of the Sąjūdis supported People’s Deputies of the USSR during the Congress, discussions on the guidelines of the Sąjūdis programme regarding the national matter, consideration of the Statute of the Sąjūdis Seimas and approval of the Seimas commissions[165]. During the session, declaration “on the process of the Lithuania's statehood restoration, wherein it is stated that for the consequences of the occupation and annexation to be eliminated it is necessary to: declare the elections to the People’s Seimas in 1940 as illegal and its resolutions as invalid; draft a law on the contractual terms for temporary presence of the USSR army in the territory of Lithuania; start negotiation with the USSR on gradual withdrawal of its army from Lithuania[166].  

Upon the initiative of the Saločiai Sąjūdis group and with the support of the Latvian Popular Front and members of Panevėžys Sąjūdis[167], the Independence monument, which was dedicated for the volunteers who died for the Independence in 1918–1919 and was demolished in Saločiai during the Soviet period, was rebuilt on the 18th of June. Negatives of K. Svėrys contain captured ceremony of unveiling of the monument, ferroconcrete obelisk on the granite pedestal with an inscription “Žuvusiems kovose už Lietuvos laisvę” (“For those who died fighting for the freedom of Lithuania”), speakers, priest consecrating the monument, tricolour flags. The Sąjūdis has initiated the Lithuanian expedition to Siberia and bringing of the remains of the deportees back to their Homeland. On the 9th of July expedition named “Lena 89” took a flight to Tiksi. Its members built 4 monuments in the places of exile, suffering and death of Lithuanians, in the mouth of Lena and coast of the Laptev Sea: they have cleaned up deportee graves that were almost completely wasted in the peninsulas of Tyt Ary, Bykov Myso and Muostakh, in Trofimov[168]. Negatives and photographs of Eugenijus Ignatavičius contain captured members of the expedition in the Bykov Deportee Cemetery, with a tricolour flag at their own built wayside shrine[169], priest consecrating monument in Tyt Ary, women with national clothes, people cleaning deportee graves, building crosses, the remains of deportees transported by plane to the Kėdainiai Airport[170]. Personal archive of Virgilijus Rimavičius stores positives with captured expedition of Molėtai Distr. publicly active people in July–August in the Revucij camp, where they have cleaned up deportee graves and built a monument for deportees. 120 remains of deportees were transported from Igarka to the Military Airport of Kėdainiai on the 28th of July. Negatives of J. Kazlauskas contain the brought back deportee remains covered with a tricolour flag and carried out from the Cathedral, crowd of thousands of people in the Cathedral Square, parked buses with the remains of deportees, procession along the Pilies Street, people carrying lit candles, clergymen, TV operator, and photographer[171].  

The Lithuanian Independence Union arranged a rally in Kalnai Park on the 12th of July, 1989, during the commemoration of the treaty between Lithuania and Soviet Russia of the 12th of July, 1920. During the rally, speakers emphasized that the treaty was not denounced, therefore it was valid, and appeal to the Lithuanian People's Deputies of the USSR, as well as an authorization to the Supreme Committee of the Liberation of Lithuania were adopted. Personal archive of J. Česnavičius holds a poster of the commemoration[172], containing information about the breach of the Treaty of 1920 and notification of a procession from the Kalnai Park to the monument of Lenin. During the Consultative Assembly of Lithuania parties and political organizations in July, it was decided to organise collection of signatures concerning the liquidation of the consequences of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact[173] 

Events of the World Lithuanian Youth Days have been arranged in Vilnius, Kaunas and Trakai on the 14th–23rd of July, 1989, by the club “Lituanica”. It has been declared during the events that “there is one Lithuanian Nation and it is undivided”. Photograph of J. Česnavičius contain a captured speaker of the event, stage with a logo with a writing World Lithuania Youth Days, “Lituanica” with Pillars of Gediminids[174].  

The Sąjūdis encouraged commemorating of the historical dates which were important for the statehood of Lithuania. The 115th Anniversary of the President of Lithuania Antanas Smetona was commemorated on the 12th of August, 1989, in Užulėnai Estate (Ukmergė District). Negatives of K. Svėrys contain captured monumental stone with an inscription “Lietuvos prezidento Antano Smetonos gimtinė” (“Motherland of the President of Lithuania Antanas Smetona”)[175], people with tricolour flags by the Užulėnai Estate, kanklės (Lithuania stringed instrument) player Antanas Bujokas, priest consecrating the monumental stone.  

The Baltic Council (a Tripartite Commission of Estonian and Latvian Popular Fronts and the Sąjūdis) made a decision in Estonia on the 15th of July, 1989, to build a “Live Chain” from Tallinn to Vilnius and to call it “To Freedom and Independence via the Baltic Way”[176]. Heinz Valk (representative of the Estonian Popular Fronts), Arnolds Klotins (representative of the Latvian Popular Front) and V. J. Čepaitis (the Sąjūdis representative) were assigned as the persons responsible for the event. The “Baltic Way” campaign was introduced to the Lithuanian people through the “Atgimimo banga” on the 19th of July, 1989. The Sąjūdis Seimas Council the “Baltic Way” campaign during the session of the 25th of July, 1989, and established a workgroup. The extraordinary session of the Baltic Council took place in Latvia on the 12th of August, 1989, and included discussion on the preparation works, exchange of opinions about election strategy, consideration of the draft Law on the Citizenship. Personal archive of A. Rupšytė stores an audio record from the session of the 12th of August of the LPS coordinators with an audible coordination of the organizational matters regarding the “Baltic Way”: placing wayside shrines in every 50th segment, organising rallies, regulation of the people flow in individual segments and decision to sing the “Tautiška giesmė” by V. Kudirka. Official press hardly informed the society about the fact that the “Baltic Way” campaign was being organized. On the 16th of August, 1989, Lithuanian people were invited to actively participate through the “Atgimimo banga” by the Sąjūdis Seimas Council. Rallies have taken place in Vilnius and other cities with an approach of the 50th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. On the 20th of August, 1989, the Lithuanian Independence Union arranged a rally in the Cathedral Square, while in the Kalnai Park rally, arranged on the 22nd of August, 1989, by the Sąjūdis, a requirement to denounce the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and to re-establish the Independence of Lithuania was put forth. The commission of the SC of the LSSR has announced a conclusion on the Treaties between Nazi Germany and the USSR in the period of 1939–1941, the liquidation of their consequences and recognized that Soviet Army’s entering to Lithuania in 1940 qualifies as occupation[177]. Declaration of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact was adopted and the Independence of Lithuania was once again declared during the 6th session of the LPS Seimas, held on the 23rd of August. Positives of V. Daraškevičius, A. Sabaliauskas and K. Svėrys contain a captured poster of the Lithuanian Independence Union inviting to the rally[178] in the Kalnai Park, youth holding tricolour flags with black ribbons attached, posters: “To liquidate the consequences of the Soviet-Nazi Pact, bring the USSR occupational army and colonists away, compensate the damage caused during the occupation”, “USSRS must follow the 1920 peace treaty with Lithuania!”, “Occupational soldiery – go out of Lithuania”[179], big cartoon of Stalin and Hitler in the Cathedral Square with a writing in red “Red Army go home”[180], “The way of the Baltic Nations is a global war against the aggressor, it’s post-war Golgotha for the Independence”, burning of the cartoon of Stalin and Hitler. Rally in the Kalnai Park, speakers – the members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council. Positives of J. Česnavičius contain captured participants of the unarmed resistance in the rally, poster “To liquidate the Soviet-Nazi Pact[181], TV operators. Negatives of V. Venslovaitis contain captured posters in the rally of Kudirkos Naumiestis: “To liquidate the consequences of the Soviet-Nazi Pact, the 1939 Ribbentrop–Molotov Pact legitimized Russian occupation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania”[182], tricolour flag with a mourning ribbon attached, participants of the rally.  

A 650 Km long live chain of people extended from the Vilnius Gediminas, through Latvia, to the Tallinn Toompea on the 23rd of August, 1989. Participants were standing in their designated segments. 2 million Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians (around 1 million) took part in the “Baltic Way“. Members of the Sąjūdis Seimas Council, People’s Deputies of the USSR, district members of the Sąjūdis, academic youth and representatives of various organizations. The order has been maintained by the so called “Green Armlet” guards. The “Baltic Way“ has shown an ability of the three Baltic Nations to focus on the common objective, the re-establishment of independent states. This campaign has also demonstrated the significant organization of the Sąjūdis, Estonian and Latvian Popular Fronts and provided a possibility to notify the free world about determination of the three Baltic Nations to seek for the independence[183]. Signatures have been collected concerning the withdrawal of the occupational army and more than 1.6 million signatures have been collected over a period longer than one month[184]. The poster released by the organisers of the “Baltic Way“ campaign included marked cities, which fell into the area of the “Baltic Way” campaign from Vilnius to Tallinn, and people holding hands of each other[185]. Pictures and negatives of J. Česnavičius, V. Daraškevičius, A. Sabaliauskas and A. Pečiukaitis contain the campaign captured in the Ukmergė Highway (beside Šeškinė)[186], cars parked on the roadside and on the green stripe[187], participants with families holding their hands and standing in lines[188], wayside shrines built and consecrated[189], driving cars with flags with black ribbons attached are visible, traffic flow moving only in one direction, candles lit at night, people standing by the built wayside shrine, plane throwing flowers[190], the Sąjūdis representatives from Seredžius[191].  

6th session of the LPS Seimas, held on the 16th of August, 1989, included discussions on the draft Law on Citizenship, elections to the SC of the LSSR and local councils, adoption of an appeal to the session of the SC of the LSSR “On the legal protection of the LSSR citizens, rehabilitation of the deportee organisation press and deportees, as well as withdrawal of privileges”. Following the “Baltic Way”, the CC of the CPSU adopted a resolution on national relations in the Baltic Republics. On the 29th of August, 1989, the Sąjūdis Seimas Council published a statement explaining that political problems arising from the relation between the Soviet Union and Lithuania should be resolved in the way of legal dialog. 

Extraordinary 7th session of the LPS Seimas, held on the 5th of September, 1989, included assessment of political situation in Lithuania, requirement to convene the session of the SC of the LSSR, which had been illegally delayed by the authority for two months, as soon as possible. An appeal to the people of Lithuania was adopted. It stated that the road to the independence could be hindered in many different ways.  

During the session of the Consultative Assembly of Lithuanian political parties and organizations, it was decided to abolish the autocracy of the LCP and to offer the SC of the USSR to register all of the political parties.  

7th session of the SC of the LSSR, held on the 22nd–23rd of September, 1989, and on the 28th–29th of September, 1989, included consideration of the elections of the local People’s Deputies and council deputies, draft Laws on Citizenship and Referendum, discussions on the draft Law of the USSR “On the Economic Autonomy of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia”; decision was made that starting from the 1990 Lithuanian youth should serve their military service term in the territory of the Lithuanian SSR or in the Baltic Military District. On the 28th of October, 1989, Public Movement of Women protested against illegal call-up of Lithuanian youth to the Soviet Army. The arranged hunger strike was mostly attended by the mothers of youth died or were severely injured in the occupational army. Negatives of K. Svėrys contain captured protest participants going through the Plies Street and Gediminas Ave., posters: “It's immoral to serve in the occupational army”, “No for Soviet Army”, “Lithuanian, beware!” Part 3 of the Article 51 of the 1949 Geneva Convention forbids the USSR Government to mobilize Lithuanians to the Soviet Army“[192], „Let‘s return the occupants the military tickets and insertion certificates“.  

8th session of the LPS Seimas held on the 24th of October, 1989, included discussions on the amendment of the LSSR Laws on Citizenship and Referendum concerning the definition of the concept of the LSSR citizen, passport issue procedures for the LSSR citizen, liabilities of the LSSR citizens and citizenship oath text[193]. LSSR laws on citizenship and referendum were adopted during the session of the SC of the LSSR, held on the 3–4th of November, 1989, and provided all the citizens of the Republic with the LSSR citizenship. 9th session of the LPS Seimas held on the 12th of November, 1989, included consideration of the matters of the elections to the SC of the LSSR and local councils, military service of Lithuanian youth in the Soviet Army, the Sąjūdis press, Statute of the Sąjūdis Seimas and adoption of the Statute of the Sąjūdis Seimas.  

In commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the retrieval of Vilnius and its region, a dedicated even took place near Maišiagala, by the former borderline. Negatives of K. Svėrys contain captured participants of the commemoration, tricolour flag, poster: “We shall plant a grove for the Vilnius Region we retrieved and shall nicely decorate our dear Homeland Lithuania”, unveiled monumental stone with Pillars of Gediminids and inscription “Vilniaus krašto atgavimo 50-metis 1939–1989” (“50th anniversary of the Vilnius Region retrieval, 1939–1989”)[194], kanklės player Antanas Bujokas, participants planting oaks, priest consecrating monumental stone.  

Members of the LLL, Committee “Ženeva-49” and other radical organizations blocked the road for the military vehicles driving along the Gediminas Ave. during the Parade of the pro-Soviet powers and the USSR army, intended for the commemoration of the 72nd anniversary of the October Revolution (7th of November). Positives of B. Kašelionis captured procession along the Gediminas Ave. arranged by the pro-Soviet powers, carrying red and white posters with writings “Vienybė Edinstvo Jedosnosc” (Unity)[195].  

People’s Deputies of the USSR from Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia established the Baltic Parliamentary Group on the 30th of September, 1989. Its objective was to coordinate united actions on the parliamentary road to the Independence of the Baltic States. With an approach of the 2nd Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR, a decision was made during the session of the Baltic Council, held on the 11th of November, 1989 in Latvia, to recommend the Baltic Parliament Group to not vote in the SC of the USSR during the adoption of laws in relation with sovereignty of the Republics; to prepare the policy of the popular fronts movements in respect of the USSR military forces and to propose to establish commissions drafting laws on the legal presence of the Soviet Army in the Three Baltic Republics. The Deputy Commission “On political and legal assessment of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939” analysed and tackled the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, its secret protocols and Stalin’s motives to sign it up until the 2nd Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR. The audio recording of the session of this commission[196] held on the 4th of November, 1989, contains audible interpretation in Russian on the circumstances of the conclusion of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and on the division of the spheres of influence between the USSR and Nazi Germany. The Second Congress of the People’s Deputies of the USSR, held on the 24th of December, 1989, adopted a resolution “On political and legal assessment of the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939” and recognized the existence of the secret protocols, which were inconsistent with the sovereignty and independence of the third States. The Congress condemned these protocols and recognized the “secret protocols as legally defective and invalid from the moment of their conclusion”.  

The Sąjūdis Seimas session, held on the 6th of January, 1990, included discussion on the Sąjūdis members in the LCP, adoption by the Sąjūdis Seimas of the resolution “On the view to the current LCP”; decision was made to arrange a peaceful demonstration during the visit of M. Gorbachev in order to show the world the determination of the Lithuanian Nation to seek for freedom and independence and a resolution was adopted on that matter. On the 10th of January, the Sąjūdis Seimas Council arranged a meeting for Lithuanians “Freedom and Independence for Lithuania!” Negatives of the V. Daraškevičius contain captured rally and poster “Freedom for Lithuania”, “1920 07 12”[197]. During the M. Gorbachev’s visit to Lithuania on the 11–14th of January, 1990, people have expressed their will to seek for the Independence.  

During the autumn of 1989, the Sąjūdis election conferences, assemblies of the representatives, where candidates to the SC of the LSSR were nominated, in many districts local people were nominated as candidates”[198]. This is also testified by an audio recording of the election conference of the Kretinga LPS support group[199], wherein discussions on the nomination and support of the candidates to the SC of the LSSR in the electoral counties No. 73 and No. 74 have been carried out. The Sąjūdis election group used to prepare and issue the canvassing material. Political situation changed in Lithuania following the LCP separation from the CPSU in December of 1989. Election platform published by the Sąjūdis in the newspaper “Atgimimas” in 1990 conveyed a message that the Sąjūdis was going to re-establish the Independent State. 148 Sąjūdis supported candidates were presented and the Sąjūdis election programme was approved in the Sąjūdis election conference “Lietuvos kelias” (“The Path of Lithuania”), held on the 3rd of February, 1990. It provided for that the Sąjūdis supported candidates to take part in the elections would seek to re-establish independent and democratically governed State of Lithuania, once they receive the mandate of the nation[200]. Negatives of V. Venslovaitis contain captured scene of the ”Lietuvos kelias”: huge logo, white Pillars of Gediminids, label of the Sąjūdis and inscription “For Lithuania with the Sąjūdis!”, voting participants of the conference, TV operators[201] 

The established and re-establish political parties: LDP, LSDP, Green Party and KDP declared that they would not nominate their individual candidates and would seek for the support of the Sąjūdis[202]. 474 candidates stood for election to 141 seats of the SC, while the Sąjūdis supported 146 candidates who carried their election campaign through the “Atgimimo banga”, arranging meetings in the districts, distributing canvassing flyers and posters[203] portraying the Sąjūdis supported candidate to the SC of the LSSR, slogan of the elections, Sąjūdis logo and Pillars of Gediminids.  

72 (out of 90) the Sąjūdis supported candidates won in the first round of the elections to the SC of the LSSR on the 24th of February, 1990. On the 28th of February, 1990, during the meeting of the Sąjūdis supported candidates who were elected in the first round of the elections, an appeal to the Presidium of the SC of the LSSR was adopted to put forward the second round of elections and convened the SC session on the 11th of March, 1990, since the 12th of March supposed to be the day of the Congress of the People's Deputies of the USSR and elections of the President of the USSR. 30 more Sąjūdis supported candidates were elected in the second round of the elections (on the 4th, 7th, 8th and 10th of March). When the Sąjūdis won the elections, the focus was on the implementation of the main objective of the Sąjūdis, the re-establishment of the State of Lithuania. Personal archive of A. Rupšytė stores audio recordings with an audible evidence that the meetings of the Sąjūdis deputies included an establishment of the Commission for the Preparation of the Plan for the Re-establishment of Independence of Lithuania, discussions on the draft documents and matters on tactics regarding the further activity of the SC, law and order and national defence. The 13th session of the Sąjūdis Seimas, held on the 8th of March included consideration on the strategy and tactics for the re-establishment of the Independence[204] 

“Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania” was adopted on the 11th of March, 1990, following its approval by 124 Deputies of the SC of the Republic of Lithuania, while 6 abstained.  

 

[1] B. Genzelis, Sąjūdis: priešistorė ir istorija, Vilnius, 1999, p. 12. 
 
[2] Nuotrauka „Piketas dėl namo Tilto g. Nr. 6“, 1986, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[3] Negatyvai „Piketas dėl namo Tilto g. Nr. 6“, 1986, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[4] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 57.
 
[5] Negatyvai „Talkos“ klubo inicijuotas Vilniaus Žemutinės pilies tvarkymas“, 1988, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[6] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 46.
 
[7] S. Lapienis, Z. Vaišvila, Atviras laiškas „Vakarinių naujienų“ redakcijai ir korespondentei I. Tiškutei“, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 06 19, nr. 2. p. 1.
 
[8] Negatyvai „Renginys-diskusija „Ar įveiksime biurokratiją?“, 1988 06 02, Vilnius, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[9] Nuotrauka „Renginys-diskusija „Ar įveiksime biurokratiją?“, 1988 06 02, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[10] Negatyvai „Renginys-diskusija „Ar įveiksime biurokratiją?“, 1988 06 02, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[11] Garso įrašas „Renginys-diskusija „Ar įveiksime biurokratiją?“, 1988 06 02, Vilnius, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[12] Garso įrašas „Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Iniciatyvinės grupės išrinkimas“, 1988 06 03, Vilnius, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[13] Išrinkta į Sąjūdžio Iniciatyvinę grupę istorikė Ingė Lukšaitė atsistatydino iš Sąjūdžio Iniciatyvinės grupės motyvuodama tuo, kad užtenka iš šeimos vieno nario.
 
[14] 1988 m. birželio 19 d. Sąjūdžio Iniciatyvinės grupės susutikimas su visuomene, aprašytas leidinyje „Sąjūdžio žinios“. J. Malinauskas, A. Medalinskas, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 06 19, nr. 1, p. 1.
 
[15] Nuotraukos „Buvęs partizanas Leonas Laurinskas (Liūtas) viešai iškėlė trispalvę Gedimino aikštėje“, 1988 06 14, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[16] B. Balikienė, Reportažas iš Vingio parko, „Pergalė!“, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 16, nr. 9, p. 1. 
 
[17] A. Skučas, Sąjūdžio mitingas – delegatų į TSKP XIX partinę konferenciją palydėtuvės Vilniaus Gedimino aikštėje, garso įrašas, Kopaktinė plokštelė: Sąjūdžio priešistorė ir gimimas: gyvosios atminties archyvas (sud. A. Ramonaitė, J. Kavaliauskaitė), VU TSMI, 2012.
 
[18] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 37. 
 
[19] V. Landsbergio žodis Lietuvai, Vilnius, Gedimino aikštė, 1988 m. birželio 24, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 03, p. 2–3.
 
[20] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios , XII t., I dalis, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 99.
 
[21] Nuotraukos „Delegatų palydos į SSKP XIX partinę konferenciją Gedimino aikštėje“, 1988 06 24, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[22] Nuotraukos „Mitinge prie naujienų agentūros „Elta“ protestuota prieš iškreiptus įvykių pranešimus ir reikalauta spaudos laisvės“, 1988 06 29, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[23] B. Balikienė, Reportažas iš Vingio parko, Pergalė!, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 16, nr. 9, p. 1.
 
[24] R. Ozolas, Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio įsikūrimas: Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud. B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 33.
 
[25] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2008, p 101.
 
[26] M. Tarmakas, Lietuviška esto kalba, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 16, nr. 9, p. 2.
 
[27] Sigito Gedos žodis Lietuvai, Vilnius, Vingio parkas, 1988 m. liepos 9 diena, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 19, nr. 10, p. 2.  
 
[28] Nuotraukos „SSKP XIX partinės konferencijos delegatų sutikimas Vingio parke“, 1988 07 09, Vilnius, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[29] Negatyvai SSKP XIX partinės konferencijos delegatų sutikimas Vingio parke, 1988 07 09, Vilnius, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[30] A. Rupšytė, Sąjūdžio ryšiai: tarp centro ir periferijos (1988 m. birželis – 1990 m. vasaris): Sąjūdis Lietuvos periferijoje (1988–1993), sud. M. Tamošaitis, L. Truska, Vilnius, 2009, p. 75.
 
[31] Vilniaus Koordinacinė Taryba, Sąjūdžio žinios,1988 07 07, nr. 7, p. 4.
 
[32] Pirmoji Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Vilniaus Taryba ir aktyvas, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 09 26, nr. 40, p. 1.
 
[33] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 60.
 
[34] Negatyvai „Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio pirmasis mitingas Kapsuke (dab. Marijampolėje)“, 1988 07 13, iš V. Mozūraičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[35] Nuotraukos „Pirmasis Marijampolės (buv. Kapsuko) Sąjūdžio mitingas“, 1988 07 13, iš P. Ulecko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[36] Negatyvai „Pirmasis Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Marijampolės mitingas“, 1988 07 13, iš R. Rusteikos asmeninio archyvo.
 
[37] Nuotrauka „Parašų rinkimo akcija dėl Marijampolės vardo grąžinimo pirmajame Marijampolės (buv. Kapsuko) Sąjūdžio mitinge“, iš P. Ulecko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[38] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 61. 
 
[39] Nuotrauka „Kauno „Atgajos“ klubo suorganizuotas ekologinis protesto žygis“, 1988 07 26 d., iš V. Valiušaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[40] J. Ivanauskaitė, Mūsų dvasios žygis. Roko maršas Vilniuje, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 08 18, nr. 24, p. 2–3.
 
[41] Nuotrauka „Roko maršo koncertas”, 1988 08 07, Vilnius, iš Algirdo Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[42] A. Rupšytė, Sąjūdžio ryšiai: tarp centro ir periferijos (1988 m. birželis – 1990 m. vasaris: Sąjūdis Lietuvos periferijoje (1988–1993 m.), sud. M. Tamošaitis, L. Truska, Vilnius, 2009, p. 75.
 
[43] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Vilnius: Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 106.
 
[44] LPS Iniciatyvinės grupės pavedimu Gintaras Songaila, iš laiško „Vakarinės naujienos“, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 07 16, nr. 9, p. 4. 
 
[45] A. Rupšytė, Sąjūdžio ryšiai: tarp centro ir periferijos (1988 m. birželis – 1990 m. vasaris): Sąjūdis Lietuvos periferijoje (1988–1993 m.), sud., M. Tamošaitis, L. Truska, Vilnius, 2009, p. 75.
 
[46] Nuotrauka „Pirmasis Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas Lazdijų rajone, Veisiejų parke“, 1988 09 25, iš J. Ražukienės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[47] Pozityvas „Veisiejų Sąjūdžio rėmimo grupės organizuotas mitingas“, 1988 08, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[48] Garso kasetė „Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Lazdijų rajono Veisiejų mitingas“, 1988 09 25, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[49] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Molėtų rajono iniciatyvinės grupės kvietimas į mitingą, Molėtai, 1988 10 02, iš A. Pranckėnienės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[50] Vaizdo medžiaga apie Molėtų rajono Sąjūdžio pirmąjį mitingą, 1988 10 02, Molėtai, iš A. Pranckėnienės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[51] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Jurbarko rajono rėmimo grupių veiklos protokolas, 1988 10 26, iš A. Pečiukaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[52] A. Rupšytė, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud. B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 329.
 
[53] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Kapsuko (dab. Marijampolės) MPAGS rėmimo grupės veiklos dokumentai, 1988, iš P. Ulecko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[54] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Kapsuko (dab. Marijampolės) rėmimo grupės inicijuota akcija dėl Marijampolės vardo grąžinimo, 1988, iš P. Ulecko asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[55] Dokumentai apie Vasario 16-osios minėjimą Kapsuke (dab. Marijampolėje), 1989 02 16, iš P. Ulecko asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[56] Negatyvai „Bado akcija dėl politinių kalinių išlaisvinimo“, 1988 08 09, iš A. Juozapaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[57] Pozityvai „Neginkluotojo pasipriešinimo dalyvio Petro Cidziko ir Algimanto Andreikos bado streikas dėl lietuvių politinių kalinių išlaisvinimo“, 1988 08, iš Broniaus Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[58] Nuotrauka „Bado akcija dėl politinių kalinių išlaisvinimo“, 1988 08, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[59] Nuotraukos „Mitingas dėl politinių kalinių išlaisvinimo“, 1988 08, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[60] R. Ozolas, Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio įsikūrimas, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 36.
 
[61] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 132–133.
 
[62] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo pakto metinėms paminėti, 1988 08 23, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[63] Pozityvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo paktui metinėms paminėti, 1988 08 23, Vilnius, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[64] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo paktui metinėms paminėti, 1988 08 23, Vilnius, iš A. Juozapaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[65] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 89.
 
[66] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio organizuota ekologinė akcija „Apkabinkime Baltiją“, 1988 09 03, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[67] J. Ivanauskaitė, „Švari gamta – stipri tauta“, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1988 09 08, nr. 35, p. 1.
 
[68] Lietuvos gyventojų parašai dėl Ignalinos atominės elektrinės trečiojo bloko statybos sustabdymo, 1988, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[69] Pozityvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio organizuota protesto akcija „Gyvybės žiedas“, 1988 09 16 – 18, iš V. Lapašausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[70] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio organizuota protesto akcija „Gyvybės žiedas“, 1988 09 16–18, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[71] Nuotrauka Sovietų kariškiai apsupę Gedimino aikštę, Vilnius, 1988 09 28, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[72] Nuotrauka Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio ir Lietuvos laisvės lygos surengtas bendras mitingas-protesto akcija prieš milicijos žiaurumą Gedimino aikštėje, 1988 09 29, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[73] A. Paškūnienė, Prieš TV poziciją, Atgimimas, 1988 10 10, nr. 2, p. 5.
 
[74] Negatyvai Gedimino pilies bokšte iškilmingai iškelta Lietuvos trispalvė, Vilnius, 1988 10 07, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[75] Pozityvai Gedimino pilies bokšte iškilmingai iškelta Lietuvos trispalvė, Vilnius, 1988 10 07, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[76] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 116.
 
[77] Balsavimo rezultatų suvestinė dėl Panevėžio rajono delegatų siuntimo į LPS Steigiamąjį suvažiavimą iš N. Simėnienės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[78] Negatyvai Kapsuko (dab. Marijampolės) Sąjūdžio delegatų palydos į Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamąjį suvažiavimą, 1988 10 21, iš V. Mozūraičio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[79] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 139.
 
[80] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, Vilnius, 1990, p. 187.
 
[81] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, Vilnius, 1990, p. 187. 
 
[82] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamojo suvažiavimo spaudos centro veiklos dokumentai, Vilnius, 1988 10 22–23, iš A. Užos asmeninio archyvo.
 
[83] Nuotraukos Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamojo suvažiavimo spaudos konferencija, Vilnius, 1988 10 22–23, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[84] Pozityvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, Vilnius, 1988 10 22–23, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[85] Nuotraukos Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, Vilnius, 1988 10 22, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[86]Negatyvai, Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, 1988 10 22, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[87] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, 1988 10 22–23, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[88] Nuotraukos Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, 1988 10 22–23, iš V. Valiušaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[89] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas, 1988 10 22–23, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[90] R. Bulota, Sąjūdžio Steigiamasis suvažiavimas ir jo įtaka Sąjūdžio evoliucijai, Sąjūdis ir dabartis, Vilnius, 2004, p. 12.
 
[91] V. Čepaitis, Sąjūdžio politinės akcijos, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 78.
 
[92] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 150.
 
[93] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo I sesija Mokslų akademijoje, 1988 11 13, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[94] Plakatas dėl parašų rinkimo akcijos prieš SSRS Konstitucijos pataisas, 1988 11, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[95] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio inicijuota parašų rinkimo akcija prieš SSRS Konstitucijos pataisas, 1988 11, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[96] A. Rupšytė, Sąjūdžio struktūra“ ryšiai ir veiksmai, p. 7, straipsnis iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[97] V. Čepaitis, Sąjūdžio politinės akcijos, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 79.
 
[98] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 156–157.
 
[99] Negayvai Prosovietinių jėgų mitingas prieš valstybinę lietuvių kalbą, 1989 02 12, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmenini archyvo.
 
[100] A. Rupšytė Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 264.
 
[101] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo Tarybos išplėstinio posėdžio medžiaga, 1988 11 20, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[102] Negatyvai Mitingas prie LTSR dėl valstybinės kalbos, 1988 11 17, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[103] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo Tarybos išplėstinio posėdžio medžiaga, 1988 11 20, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[104] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 179.
 
[105] Negatyvai SSRS deputatų palydos į SSRS AT sesiją, 1988 11 26, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[106] Antroji LPS Seimo sesija, Atgimimas, 1988 12 12, nr. 10, p. 4.
 
[107] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo II sesija Mokslų akademijoje, 1988 12 04, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[108] LPS Seimo Tarybos posėdžių dienotvarkės, 1988 – 1989, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[109] LPS Seimo Tarybos posėdžių protokolai, 1988 12 07 – 1988 12 27, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[110] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Vievio paukštyno rėmimo grupės finansinis dokumentas, 1988 12 09, Vievis, iš J. Janonio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[111] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio akcija „Žvakutės languose“, 1988 12 24, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[112] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 213. 
 
[113] Vievio paukštyno darbo kolektyvų, iškėlusių Vytauto Landsbergio kandidatūrą rinkimuose į LTSR AT Vievio rinkiminėje apygardoje Nr. 318, protokolai, 1988 11 29–1988 11 30, iš J. Janonio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[114] A. Rupšytė Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 254.
 
[115] Rinkimų į laisvas LTSR AT vietas Vievio rinkiminėje apygardoje Nr. 318 rezultatai, 1989, iš J. Janonio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[116] Nuotraukos Lietuvos Demokratų partijos suvažiavimas, 1989 02 05,Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[117] Nuotraukos Lietuvos socialdemokratų partijos atkuriamoji konferencija, 1989 08 12, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[118] Negatyvai Pirmasis po sovietinės okupacijos Lietuvos skautų susirinkimas, 1989 02 12, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[119] Užrašai apie Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo Tarybos posėdžiuose svarstomą medžiagą, 1988–1989, O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninis archyvas.
 
[120] Negatyvai Vilniaus Arkikatedros atgavimo šventinimo iškilmės, 1989 02 05, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[121] Pozityvai Vilniaus arkikatedros atgavimo šventinimo iškilmės, 1989 02 05, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[122] Negatyvai Europos parlamento „Baltic Intergroup“ narių susitikimas su Sąjūdžio, Laisvės lygos, Demokratų partijos atstovais, 1989 02 06, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[123] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 206.
 
[124] Nuotrauka Iškilminga Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo sesija, 1989 02 15, Vilnius iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[125] Negatyvas Memorialinės lentos atidengimas prie Signatarų namų, 1989 02 16, iš R. Grigo asmeninio archyvo.
 
[126] Nuotraukos Vasario 16-osios minėjimas prie Signatarų namų, 1989 02 16, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[127] Negatyvai „Laisvės“ paminklo atstatymo ir šventinimo iškilmės Kaune, 1989 02 16, iš A. Juozapaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[128] Negatyvai „Laisvės“ paminklo atstatymo iškilmės, 1989 02 16, Kaunas, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[129] Nuotraukos Vasario 16–osios minėjimas Jurbarko rajone, 1989 02 16, iš A. Pečiukaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[130] Nuotraukos Vasario 16-osios minėjimas Marijampolės įmonėje „Fasa“ , iš P. Ulecko asmenini archyvo.
 
[131] Negatyvai Lietuvos žemdirbių sąjūdžio suvažiavimas 1989 02 25–26, Vilnius, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[132] Vilniaus darbininkų sąjungos veiklos dokumentai, 1988–1989, iš J. Janonio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[133] Pozityvai Priešrinkiminis Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas–susitikimas Kalnų parke, 1989 03 08, Vilnius, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[134] Negatyvai Priešrinkiminis Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio mitingas–susitikimas Kalnų parke, 1989 03 08, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[135] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 226.
 
[136] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo Tarybos posėdžių protokolai, 1989 01 03–1989 04 11, iš O. Volungevičiūtės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[137] Negatyvai Rinkimai į TSRS liaudies deputatus Kapsuke (dab. Marijampolėje) ir Kalvarijoje, 1989 03, iš V. Mozūraičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[138] Nuotrauka Kandidatų į SSRS liaudies deputatus Sigito Gedos ir Antano Buračo rinkiminė agitacija Lazdijų rajone, 1989 03, iš J. Ražukienės asmeninio archyvo.
 
[139] Nuotraukos Lietuvos demokratų partijos organizuotas mitingas „Konstitucija ir demokratija“, 1989 04 16, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[140] Pozityvai Lietuvos demokratų partijos suorganizuotas mitingas „Konstitucija ir demokratija“,1989 04 16, Vilnius, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[141] A. Rupšytė, Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklasomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 257.
 
[142] Nuotraukos Lietuvos Demokratų partijos suorganizuota gedulo eisena Gedimino prospektu iki Katedros aikštės tragiškiems balandžio 9-osios nakties įvykiams Tbilisyje atminti ir jų aukoms pagerbti, 1989 04 23, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[143] Negatyvai Lietuvos Demokratų partijos suorganizuota gedulo eisena Gedimino prospektu iki Katedros aikštės tragiškiems balandžio 9-osios nakties įvykiams Tbilisyje atminti ir jų aukoms pagerbti, 1989 04 23, iš V. Daraškevičiaus.
 
[144] Klaipėdos darbininkų sąjungos įstatai, iš J. Janonio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[145] Nuotraukos Darbininkų sąjungos steigiamasis suvažiavimas, 1989 07 01, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[146] Negatyvai Atstatytas paminklas Lietuvai Motinai, 1989, iš V. Mozūraičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[147] Negatyvai Trijų jachtų „Lietuva“, „Dailė“, „Audrė“ plaukimas, skirtas Stepono Dariaus ir Stasio Girėno skrydžiui per Atlantą paminėti, 1989 05 13, Klaipėda, iš R. Grigo asmeninio archyvo.
 
[148] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 241.
 
[149] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 241–242.
 
[150] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 267.
 
[151] Č. Laurinavičius, V. Sirutavičius, Sąjūdis: nuo „Persitvarkymo“ iki Kovo 11-osios, XII t., I dalis, Baltos lankos, 2008, p. 268.
 
[152] Negatyvai SSRS liaudies deputatų iš Lietuvos palydos į Maskvą, 1989 05 20, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[153] A. Rupšytė Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklasomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 258. 
 
[154] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 249.
 
[155] Negatyvai SSRS liaudies deputatų iš Lietuvos mitingas–sutikimas Vingio parke, Vilnius, 1989 06 11, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[156] Negatyvai SSRS liaudies deputatų mitingas–sutikimas Vingio parke, Vilnius, 1989 06 11, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[157] Negatyvai Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas, 1989 06 14, Vilnius, iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[158] Nuotrauka Atkastas paminklas „Trys kryžiai“, Vilnius, 1989 06, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[159] Negatyvai Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas Naujosios Vilnios geležinkelio stotyje, 1989 06 14, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[160] Negatyvai Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas Naujosios Vilnios geležinkelio stotyje, 1989 06 14, iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[161] Negatyvai Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas, Kaunas, 1989 06 14, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[162] Negatyvai Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas Marijampolėje, 1989 06 14, iš R. Rusteikos asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[163] Nuotraukos Gedulo ir vilties dienos minėjimas Jurbarko rajone, 1989 06 14, iš A. Pečiukaičio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[164] Nuotrauka Mitingas prie Giedraičių koplyčios minint Gedulo ir vilties dieną, 1989 06 14, iš V. Rimavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[165] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 253.
 
[166] Sąjūdžio Seimo pareiškimas dėl Lietuvos valstybingumo atkūrimo raidos“, Sąjūdžio žinios, 1989 06 30, nr. 86, p. 1.
 
[167] Paminklas nepriklausomybės kovose žuvusiems savanoriams Saločiuose, Pasvalio krašto e. biblioteka, http://www.pasvalia.lt/object.php?id=76&m=16&ms=18 , [žiūrėta 2013 01 02]. 
 
[168] A. Rupšytė Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 263.
 
[169] Nuotraukos Lietuvių ekspedicijos dalyvių pastatytas koplytstulpis Bykovo tremtinių kapinėse, 1989 07, iš E. Ignatavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[170] Negatyvai Kelionė į Sibirą, 1989 07–1989 08, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
  
[171] Negatyvai Pargabentų tremtinių palaikų pagerbimas Vilniuje, 1989 07 29, iš J. Kazlausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[172] Skelbimas kviečiantis į Lietuvos Nepriklausomybės sąjungos mitingą, skirtą 1920 m. liepos 21 d. sutarčiai tarp Lietuvos ir Sovietų Rusijos paminėti Kalnų parke 1989 07 12, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[173] A. Rupšytė, Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 263. 
 
[174] Nuotrauka Pasaulio lietuvių jaunimo dienų Lituanica renginys, 1989 07, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[175] Negatyvai Lietuvos prezidento Antano Smetonos 115-ųjų gimimo metinių minėjimas Užulėnyje, 1989 08 12, iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[176] V. Čepaitis, Sąjūdžio politinės akcijos, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 88.
 
[177] A. Rupšytė, Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud., B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 264.
 
[178] Negatyvai Mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo pakto pakui paminėti, Vilnius, 1989 08 22, Vilnius iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[179] Nuotrauka Mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo paktui pasmerkti Kalnų parke, 1989 08 22, Vilnius, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[180] Negatyvai Mitingas Molotovo–Ribentropo pakto pakui paminėti, Vilnius, 1989 08 22, Vilnius iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[181] Pozityvai Mitingas pasmerkiantis Molotovo-Ribentropo paktą Kalnų parke, 1989 08 23, Vilnius, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[182] Negatyvai Mitingas skirtas Molotovo–Ribentropo paktui pasmerkti Kudirkos Naumiestyje, 1989 08 23, iš V. Venslovaičio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[183] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 302.
 
[184] A. Rupšytė, mašinraštis: Sąjūdžio struktūra: ryšiai ir veiksmai, p. 17, straipsnis iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[185] Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio, Latvijos Liaudies Fronto ir Estijos Liaudies Fronto organizuotos akcijos „Baltijos kelias“, 1988 08 23, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[186] Nuotrauka Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio, Latvijos Liaudies Fronto ir Estijos Liaudies Fronto organizuotos akcijos „Baltijos kelias“ atkarpa Ukmergės plente, 1989 08 23, iš J. Česnavičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[187] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio, Latvijos ir Estijos Liaudies Frontų akcija „Baltijos kelias“, 1989 08 23, iš A. Sabaliausko asmeninio archyvo.
 
[188] Negatyvai Molėtiškiai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio, Latvijos Liaudies Fronto ir Estijos Liaudies Fronto surengtoje akcijoje „Baltijos kelias“, 1989 08 23, iš „UAB Molėtų Vilnis“ archyvo. 
 
[189] Nuotrauka Molėtiškiai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio, Latvijos Liaudies Fronto ir Estijos Liaudies Fronto organizuotoje akcijoje „Baltijos kelias“, 1989 08 23, iš V. Rimavičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[190] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio organizuota akcija „Baltijos kelias“, 1989 08 23iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo.
 
[191] Nuotrauka Jurbarko rajono Seredžiaus Sąjūdžio narių dalyvavimas LPS akcijoje „Baltijos kelias“, 1989 08 23, iš A. Pečiukaičio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[192] Negatyvai Protesto eisena prieš karinę tarnybą okupacinėje sovietų armijoje, Vilnius, 1989-11, iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo.
 
[193] Garso kasetės Mg 010921, 1989 10 25, LPS Seimo Darbinė sesija (Buivydas). 
 
[194] Negatyvai Paminklinio akmens, skirto Vilniaus krašto atgavimo 50-mečiui atidengimo iškilmės, 1989 10 23, Vilnius, iš K. Svėrio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[195] Pozityvai Prosovietinių jėgų suorganizuota eisena Gedimino prospektu, 1989 11 07, iš B. Kašelionio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[196] Garso kasetė TSRS liaudies deputatų suvažiavimo sudarytos Molotovo-Ribentropo pakto komisijos posėdis, 1989 12 11, Maskva, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[197] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio Seimo Tarybos suorganizuota Lietuvos žmonių sueiga „Laisvę ir Nepriklausomybę Lietuvai!“, 1990 01 10, Vilnius, iš V. Daraškevičiaus asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[198] A. Rupšytė, mašinraštis: Sąjūdžio struktūra: ryšiai ir veiksmai, p. 17, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[199] Garso kasetė, Kretingos LPS rėmimo grupių rinkimų konferencija, 1989 11 19, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[200] Sąjūdžio rinkiminė programa, Atgimimas, 1990 02 02. 
 
[201] Negatyvai Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdžio rinkimų konferenciją „Lietuvos kelias“, Vilnius, 1990 02 03, iš V. Venslovaičio asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[202] V. Čepaitis, Su Sąjūdžiu už Lietuvą nuo 1988 06 03–1990 03 11, Tvermė, 2007, p. 405. 
 
[203] Rinkimų į LTSR AT Sąjūdžio remiamų kandidatų: Vytenio Povilo Andriukaičio, Vidmanto Žiemelio, Česlovo Stonio, Vytauto Kolesnikovo, Romo Ručinsko, Kazio Jukniaus, Alberto Adašiūno, Juozo Janonio, Jono Šimėno, Jono Šepučio, Viktoro Onačko, Jono Mačio, Felikso Klupšo, Kęstučio Griniaus, Jono Tamulio, Juozo Jakšto, Juozo Skudros, Antano Kudzio, Eduardo Vilko, Kazimiero Antanavičiaus, Birutės Valionytės, Jono Liaučiaus, Vytauto Landsbergio, Aleksandro Klumbio, Stasio Kropo, Rimvydo Raimondo Survilos, Algirdo Abromaičio, Algirdo Endriukaičio, Arvydo Leščinsko, Izidoriaus Šimelionio, Jono Prapiesčio agitaciniai plakatai, 1990 02 24, iš A. Rupšytės asmeninio archyvo. 
 
[204] A. Rupšytė, Politinių įvykių chronologija 1988–1991, Kelias į Nepriklausomybę: Lietuvos Sąjūdis 1988–1991, sud. B. Genzelis ir A. Rupšytė, Kaunas, 2010, p. 273.
 
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